- List of naval battles during the French Revolutionary War


British_navy 1792-1802



France and Napoleon

England/Royal Navy



20 May - Minorca - French under la Galissonnière defeat British under John Byng



Chesma Two Russian squadrons, commanded by Admiral Grigory Spiridov and Rear Admiral John Elphinstone, a British advisor, combined under the overall command of Count Alexei Orlov, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Fleet //Russian fleet defeats and burns Turkish fleet off western Turkey (Mandalzade Hüsameddin Pasha Ottaan Fleet)



5 September 5 Chesapeake Bay - French under de Grasse drive off British under Graves


14 Jan – Napoleon is appointed as Warrant Officer-Major of a battalion of the National Guard of Ajaccio.
1 Apr – Napoleon Bonaparte becomes second lieutenant-colonel of the same battalion.

10 Jul– Napoleon is reincoporated into the army, with a captain's rank.
10 Oct – Napoleon returns to Ajaccio, with orders to resume his command in Corsica.



25 Jul – Napoleon is sent to Avignon to dislodge the federalists from Marseilles. He seizes Villeneuve and himself directs the cannons bombarding Avignon, the city of the Popes.
16 Sep – He is sent to command the artillery in front of Toulon.
28 Oct – Promotion of Napoleon Bonaparte to the rank of battalion commander.

17 Dec – Napoleon Bonaparte is injured by a bayonet during the assault of fort Mulgrave.

19 Dec – He penetrates into Toulon at 7 AM.

22 Dec – Promotion, to the rank of Brigade General.

26 Dec – The defence of Marseilles and the Provence coast is bequeathed to him.

6 Nov - French capture HMS Alexander (details)

18 Nov - Short, inconclusive British-French battle


24 Mar – Napoleon gets the command of the artillery of the army of Italy.
21 May – Napoleon draws up the plan for the Italy campaign.In Colmars, Basses-Alpes
27 Jul – Arrest of Maximilien Robespierre, who is executed the day after.
6 Aug – Napoleon is suspended from his duties, arrested and charged with complicity with the Robespierre brothers.

20 Aug – He gets his freedom back...

30 Aug –... and his duties as well.

January 22 and 25 - French attack British convoy (details)

April 23 - British defeat French frigates (details)

June 1 The Glorious First of June - British fleet defeats French fleet in North Atlantic but French grain convoy makes it through to Brest

June 8 - French vs British near Jersey

August 23 - British defeat French near Brest

October 22 - French vs British near Mauritius


29 Mar – Napoleon gets the command of the artillery of the army of the West.
13 Jun – Napoleon refuses an appointment as General of infantry and gets convalescence leave.
15 Sep – His name is struck off the list of generals in regular service.
5 Oct – Paul-François de Barras, Chief General of the Army of the Interior, appoints him upon the recommandation of Lazare Carnot commander of the forces earmarked for repressing insurrection from the royalist sections in Paris.

10 Oct – Barras praises general Buonaparte in front of the Convention. He manages to get his appointment confirmed.

16 Oct – Napoleon Bonaparte is promoted as Division General.

26 Oct – He succeeds Barras as commander of the army of the Interior.
3 Nov – Assumption of duties in the Executive Directory. Directors chosen by the Council of the Ancients are: Paul-François de Barras, Jean-François Reubell (a.k.a. Rewbell), Louis-Marie La Révellière-Lépeaux, Etienne-François Le Tourneur and Lazare Carnot.

March 13 and 14 - British under Hotham vs French under Martin (details)

June 8 and 9 - British vs French near Belle Isle

June 23 Groix - British under Hood defeat French under Villaret-Joyeuse off Groix, France

July 13 - British vs French (details)

October 7 - British vs French (details)


2 Mar – General Napoleon Bonaparte gets the command in chief of the army of Italy.

2 Apr – Napoleon Bonaparte reaches Menton: the Campaign in Italy begins.

12 Apr – Battle of Montenotte  – Battle of Millesimo – Entry in Cosseria – Victory of Dego.

21 Apr – Battle of Mondovi. Napoleon Bonaparte enters the city in the evening.

28 Apr – In Cherasco, Bonaparte signs an armistice with the envoys of the King of Sardinia without reporting it to the Directory.

9 May – An armistice is signed with the duke of Parma.

10 May – Victory of Lodi. Bonaparte is appointed as corporal by his soldiers.

15 May – Bonaparte enters Milan. In Paris, the envoys of the King of Sardinia sign a peace treaty, whose clauses are more severe than the clauses of the armistice (loss of Savoy and Nice in particular).

17 May – The duke of Modena gets an armistice.

24 May – Insurrection of the Milanese population.

25 May – Napoleon Bonaparte represses the movement. The village of Binasco is burnt. Proclamation to the inhabitants of Lombardy to to threaten them with terrible reprisals.

26 May – The municipality of Pavia is shot down for having refused to surrender the city, which is left to be looted.

31 May – Bonaparte personally commands the repression against the farmers of Tortona.
1 Jun – Jean Lannes sets fire to the village of Arquata.

3 Jun – Entry of the French in Verona.

6 Jun – An armistice is signed with the Kingdom of Naples.

12 Jun – Entry of the French army in the Papal States.

23 Jun – Signing of an armistice in Bologna with the Holy See.

27 Jun – Livorno is occupied.

6 Jul – Lugo is recaptured and punished.

26 Jul – Offensive of Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser, the new Austrian chief general.

29 Jul – The Austrians recapture Brescia and Mantua; they march over Castiglione.
3 Aug – Victory of André Masséna at Lonato.– of Charles Pierre François Augereau at Castiglione – Victory of Roveredo – Victory of Bassano.

14-15 Sep – Battle of San Giorgio di Mantova.

17 Sep – Creation of the Cispadane Republic, comprising Modena, Reggio, Bologna and Ferrara.

9 Oct – Genoa accepts to shut its ports to the British and pay a tribute, thereby getting a treaty with France. – Naples also undertakes to pay.
1 Nov – New Austrian offensive.

6 Nov – Masséna fails in Bassano. and Bonaparte in Caldiero.

17 Nov – Victory of Arcole, after three days of battle.

6 Dec – The city of Carrara tries to revolt, repression is immediate.

27 Dec – The patriots of Bergamo and Ferrara come to an understanding and form a Cisalpine Republic.

Oct British evacuate Corsica


11 Jan – Livorno is evacuated.

14 Jan – Victory of Rivoli.

16 Jan – Battle of La Favorita.

2 Feb – The Austrian General Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser surrenders at Mantua .

9 Feb – Ancona is captured.

19 Feb – The peace treaty with the Pope is signed at Tolentino.

16 Mar – Battle of Tagliamento.

19 Mar – Capture of Gradisca.

23 Mar – Entry in Trieste.

29 Mar – Entry in Klagenfurt.

9 Apr – Bonaparte threatens the Doge of Venice with war.

13 Apr – Prolongation of the suspension of arms up to Apr 10th.

17 Apr – The French of the Veronese are massacred.

18 Apr – The preliminaries for peace are signed at Leoben.

15 May – Venice is occupied. The Doge flees and is replaced by a provisional municipality.

16 May – Signing of a peace treaty with Venice, against heavy contributions.

16 Aug – Bonaparte in his turn advises the Directory on the annexation of Egypt, in order to destroy England.

22 Aug – He goes to Udino for the peace negotiations with Austria.

24 Aug – At Padova, Bonaparte announces that the city will be reunited with the Cisalpine Republic.

25 Aug – Bonaparte demands a contribution from the city of Treviso.

31 Aug – Beginning of peace negotiations with Austria.
4 Sep – The directorial coup d'état of the 18 fructidor takes place in Paris.

6 Sep – Napoleon Bonaparte learns of this event from Talleyrand.

10 Sep – Bonaparte orders that the anniversary of the foundation of the Republic (Sep 22nd) be celebrated in the army.

12 Sep – A new letter to Talleyrand.

13 Sep – Bonaparte informs Talleyrand about the projects that he is making as regards Egypt.

15 Sep – Arrest and execution of bandits in Milan whose chief had named himself Buonaparte, and others had taken on the names of Masséna, Augereau and other generals.

19 Sep – Napoleon Bonaparte demands of Talleyrand that Sieyès comes to Italy in order to provide Genoa and the Cisalpine Republic with a constitution.

22 Sep – Bonaparte addresses a proclamation to the army, on the occasion of the function to celebrate the anniversary of the Republic.

23 Sep – Bonaparte congratulates François de Neufchâteau and Merlin de Douai on their entry to the Directory.
6 Oct – Letter from Napoleon Bonaparte to the general treasurer of the army, Haller, soliciting funds.

7 Oct – Bonaparte announces to Talleyrand that he is highly desirous of reaching at a peace agreement.

10 Oct – He sends an account to the Directory of the peace conditions that he has agreed to.

17 Oct – The peace treaty is signed at Campo-Formio.

18 Oct – Bonaparte proposes to Talleyrand that the government must devote its activity towards the destruction of England.

26 Oct – The Campo-Formio treaty is ratified by the Directory. The chief command of the Army of England is entrusted to Napoleon Bonaparte.

27 Oct – Bonaparte is designated as the plenipotentiary of the French Republic in view of the Rastadt Congress.
7 Nov – Napoleon Bonaparte reorganizes the Ionian Islands which become the departments of Corcyre (Corfu), Ithaca and the Aegean Sea.

9 Nov – He orders Haller to put funds into the cash fund for the England expedition.

11 Nov – He addresses a proclamation to the Cisalpine people on the occasion of his departure.

17 Nov – Bonaparte leaves for Rastadt.

20 Nov – At Chambéry, he issues and order imposing a considerable contribution to the departments of Mont-Blanc, Isère, Drôme, Ain, the Hautes-Alpes and the Rhône.

21 Nov – In Geneva, Bonaparte promises the authorities that he will abide by the independence of their republic.

26 Nov – Arrival at Rastadt (or Rastatt).

28 Nov – The congress opens. Stormy encounter between Bonaparte and Fersen, delegate from Sweden, who is reproached by Bonaparte for earlier relations with Queen Marie-Antoinette.
1 Dec – Napoleon Bonaparte leaves Rastadt after signing an agreement for the removal of troops.

3 Dec – He is received by a Masonic Lodge at Nancy.

5 Dec – Arrival at Paris.

6 Dec – Fisrt interview with Talleyrand.

10 Dec – Napoleon Bonaparte is solemnly received at the Palais du Luxembourg.

25 Dec – He is elected to the Institute, to fill in Lazare Carnot's seat, which had been declared vacant.

February 14 Cape St Vincent - British under Jervis defeat Spanish near Gibraltar

March 26 - Austrian vessels, supported by Venetian battleship, fight off small French attack (details)

May 16 - Danish vessels get the better of Tripolitans near Tripoli, Libya (details)

October 11 Camperdown (Kamperduin) - British fleet under Admiral Duncan defeats Dutch





4 Jan – Napoleon Bonaparte is received at the Institute.

12 Jan – He makes a presentation to the Directory on an invasion plan of England.

21 Jan – Bonaparte attends the commemoration of the execution of King Louis XVI.
14 Feb – Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord reads a report on the issue of Egypt to the Directory.

15 Feb – The French army under Louis-Alexandre Berthier enters Rome.

20 Feb – Napoleon Bonaparte is back in Paris.

23 Feb – A report by Bonaparte rejects the idea of making a descent in England. His advice is to conclude peace with it.
5 Mar – The Directory decides on the conquest of Egypt, under General Napoleon Bonaparte.
12 Apr – Napoleon Bonaparte is appointed as the Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Orient.
4 May – Napoleon Bonaparte leaves Paris for Toulon.

19 May – The fleet transporting the Army of the Orient (37,000 men) gets underway for Egypt.
10 Jun – Stopover in front of Malta.

12 Jun – Capitulation of La Valette, the capital of the island.

13 Jun – End of the conquest.

14 Jun – Destruction of the Order of Saint-Jean of Jerusalem. Two thousand barbaric slaves are freed.

17 Jun – Napoleon Bonaparte informs the Directory of the capture of Malta.

30 Jun – Bonaparte writes to the pasha of Egypt for inviting him to join forces with him.
1 Jul – Napoleon Bonaparte lands in Egypt, near Alexandria.

2 Jul – Bonaparte enters Alexandria. Proclamation to the people of Egypt asking them not to support the Mamelukes.

13 Jul – First victory, at Chobrakit.

21 Jul – Victory of Pyramids.

22 Jul – Bonaparte writes to the notables of Cairo demanding their submission.

25 Jul – He enters Cairo.

30 Jul – Bonaparte orders the disarmament of the inhabitants of Alexandria, on pain of capital punishment.

31 Jul – Bonaparte decides to disarm the inhabitants of Cairo.
1 -2 Aug – Naval defeat of Abukir (Battle of the Nile).

8 Aug – Napoleon Bonaparte embarks on the pursuit of Ibrahim.

16 Aug – Marriage of Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte and Désirée Clary, ex-fiancee of Napoleon Bonaparte.

22 Aug – Creation by Bonaparte of the Institute of Egypt.

25 Aug – Bonaparte gets a village whose inhabitants assassinated sixteen Frenchmen looted and burnt.

29 Aug – First issue of the Courrier de l'Égypte, founded by Napoleon Bonaparte in Cairo.
4 Sep – Napoleon Bonaparte imposes the tricoloured flag and cockade.

6 Sep – Seid Mohammed el-Koraïm, a high dignitary of Cairo, is shot down for having betrayed the Republic after having sworn loyalty to it. His head is paraded on the streets.

16 Sep – Sale of the confiscated diamonds, gold coins and precious fabrics.

22 Sep – Celebration of the foundation of the French Republic.

25 Sep – Bonaparte demands funds from the appropriator of funds Poussielgue.

26 Sep – Bonaparte orders General Dugua to disarm the population, arrest the suspects and take hostages.

27 Sep – He enjoins the governor of Cairo to get two spies beheaded.
6 Oct – Napoleon Bonaparte demands more severity of General Vial.

9 Oct – Fresh admonishment to Poussielgue.

21 Oct – Revolt of the population of Cairo: death of General Dominique-Martin Dupuy.

22 Oct – Abolition of the Grand Divan of Cairo.

23 Oct – To Berthier: Bonaparte orders the execution of all the prisoners who were caught with weapons in their hands.

28 Oct – Bonaparte writes to Louis Charles Antoine Desaix to inform him that everything is perfectly calm and quiet and in order.

30 Oct – Bonaparte inaugurates a concert-garden in Cairo. He makes the acquaintance of Pauline Fourès, the wife of one of his officers.
18 Dec – Pauline Fourès's husband returns to France carrying dispatches to the Directory.

19 Dec – The monks of Mount Sinai are exempt from all duties and tributes and get total freedom of worship. This is so, due to respect for Moses and the Jewish nation.

21 Dec – Reinstatement of the Grand Divan of Cairo.

August 1–3 The Nile (Aboukir Bay) - British under Nelson defeat moored French fleet under Brueys in Egypt

October 12 - British defeat French invasion force off western Ireland (details)

October 28 - Minor British vs French


9 Jan – Creation of a camel regiment.

11 Jan – Joachim Murat gets the order to take hold of a village and kill all the men that he will not be able to capture.

15 Jan – Napoleon Bonaparte once again urges Poussielgue to find funds.

18 Jan – He orders General Verdier to execute the Sheik of a village under the pretext of having hidden Mamelukes and canons.
10 Feb – Napoleon Bonaparte and 13,000 men leave Cairo for Syria.

25 Feb – Entry in Gaza.
3 Mar – Arrival in front of Jaffa.

7 Mar – Capture of Jaffa followed by two days of looting and massacres. Execution of the 4,000 men of the garrison.

9 Mar – Napoleon Bonaparte writes to the sheiks of Jerusalem to ask them to choose between peace and war.

11 Mar – Bonaparte's visit to the plague victims of Jaffa.

12 Mar – French Directory declares war to Austria.

19 Mar – Beginning of the siege of Acre.
16 Apr – Battle of Mount Tabor, near the eponymous mountain in Galilea, main battle exploit of the Egyptian campaign.

21 Apr – Joséphine de Beauharnais acquires Malmaison.
17 May – Lifting of the siege of Acre...

24 May –. ..and return to Jaffa.

26 May – Paul-François de Barras demands the return of Napoleon Bonaparte.

27 May – Second visit to the plague victims.

28 May – Bonaparte orders Jean-Baptiste Kléber to get the harvest burnt, the villages looted and the cattle requisitioned.
14 Jun – Return to Cairo.

19 Jun – General Charles Dugua receives the order to shoot down all the Moghrebins, Mekkins, etc., who had held arms against the French.
20 Jul – Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord resigns.

25 Jul – Battle of Abukir (or Aboukir).
17 Aug – Napoleon Bonaparte declares to the Divan of Cairo that he is leaving for a tour in the Delta.

22 Aug – He informs General Menou that he is leaving that very night for France.
1 Oct – Napoleon Bonaparte lands in Ajaccio , Corsica.

6 Oct – He leaves Ajaccio.

9 Oct – He lands in Saint-Raphaël.

16 Oct – Arrival at Paris.

17 Oct – Reception by the Directory.

23 Oct – Meeting with Jean Victor Marie Moreau and Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès. Beginning of the preparations of the coup d'État. Lucien Bonaparte is elected to the presidency of the Council of Five Hundred.
1 Nov – Decisive interview with Sieyès, at Lucien's place.

7 Nov – Napoleon Bonaparte has dinner with Talleyrand.

8 Nov – Cambacérès has Bonaparte to dinner.

9 Nov – Coup d'État of the 18 Brumaire.

10 Nov – At Saint-Cloud, grenadiers under the command of Joachim Murat Mar into the Orangerie and disperse the Council of Five Hundred. A group of members of the Council enacts that there is no Directory any longer. Sixty-one deputies of the Council deposed of their mandate. An executive Consular Commission, made up of Bonaparte, Sieyès and Roger-Ducos, is named. Bonaparte's proclamation to the country.

11 Nov – First meeting of the three consuls.

13 Nov – Repeal of the law allowing taking hostages among the family of emigrant and the erstwhile nobles.

15 Nov – Napoleon Bonaparte settles in at the Palais du Petit Luxembourg.

16 Nov – The Minister of the Police gets the play Les Mariniers de Saint-Cloud removed from the programme.

19 Nov – The Minister of the Police decides that he will no longer tolerate anything in shows which could divide people's minds.

20 Nov – The Treasury has only 167,000 Francs left in cash.

22 Nov – Talleyrand becomes the Minister of External Affairs once again.

28 Nov – Creation of the Consular guard.

29 Nov – The deportation of sworn priests is cancelled.
1 Dec – Songs on the events related to the Brumaire and harmful with respect to the national representation are banned.

2 Dec – A raid dispatches three hundred prostitute to the prison or the hospital.

4 Dec – Pierre Daunou, a former moderate conventional, is given the charge of drawing up a draft constitution.

5 Dec – Organization of a Tolerance festival in the former church Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois.

12 Dec – Napoleon Bonaparte gets Daunou's draft constitution read to him, and gets it adopted immediately.

14 Dec – Signing of an armistice with the Vendeens.

15 Dec – The Constitution of the year VIII is proclaimed.

18 Dec – Napoleon Bonaparte asks Talleyrand to impose tax on the dealers of Genoa.

22 Dec – Installation of the Council of State. Sieyès receives a domain worth 480,000 Francs, by way of a national reward.

24 Dec – Bonaparte becomes the first consul.

25 Dec – Bonaparte proclaims his intention of rendering the Republic "dear to its citizens, respectable to foreigners, formidable to enemies".

27 Dec – Installation of the Senate.

28 Dec – Amnesty is granted to the Vendeen insurgents who will surrender their arms within ten days. Opening of churches on Sundays is authorized. Oath is no longer demanded of clergymen.

30 Dec – An order is given to render funeral honours to Pope Pius VI, who died four months earlier ( Aug 29th, 1799) in Valence, Drôme.

1799 September 3, 4, 5 and 10 - Minor light skirmishes between British and Spanish


9 Jan – The municipalities lose their right to appoint police commissioners.

17 Jan – An order abolishes sixty out of the seventy-three Parisian political newspapers. The creation of new titles is banned.

18 Jan – The Banque de France is created. Vendeans surrender to General Brune.

21 Jan – Royalist demonstrations on the occasion of the death anniversary of Louis XVI.

25 Jan – Creation of a reserve army of 60,000 men, placed under the command of the First Consul.
7 Feb – Napoleon Bonaparte praises George Washington, who died two months ago. For ten days, all the flags of the Republic will display black crepes.

9 Feb – Ceremony at the Hôtel des Invalides honoring the memory of George Washington.

13 Feb – Publication of the statutes of the Banque de France (Bank of France).

14 Feb – The Chouan chief Georges Cadoudal lays down his arms.

15 Feb – The journalists lose the right to print anything related to land and sea movements.

17 Feb – A new administrative organization of France is adopted.

18 Feb – The Constitution of the year VIII is adopted by plebiscite: 3,011,007 yes, 1,562 no.

19 Feb – Napoleon Bonaparte sets up house at the Palais des Tuileries.

20 Feb – The Count of Provence (future Louis XVIII) requests Bonaparte in writing to leave him his place.
2 Mar – Appointment of the prefects of ninety-eight departments.

3 Mar – Closing of the list of emigrants.

8 Mar – Creation of the police prefecture of Paris.

14 Mar – At Venice, cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti is elected Pope Pius VII.

18 Mar – Law on the new organization of courts.
5 Apr – Governmental authorization becomes necessary for staging a play in the theatre.

21 Apr – André Masséna enters Genoa with his army.

27 Apr – Napoleon Bonaparte orders Charles Augereau to bring the Batavian government to book.
6 May – Napoleon Bonaparte leaves Paris: it is the beginning of the second campaign in Italy.

9 May – Bonaparte reaches Geneva.

14 May – The French army approaches the slopes of Mount Saint-Bernard.

20 May – Bonaparte crosses Saint-Bernard .

24 May – From Aoste: in a letter to the Consuls, Bonaparte announces that he hopes to be back in Paris within fifteen days.

26 May – Battle of La Chiusella.

30 May – Joachim Murat captures Novara.
2 Jun – Entry in Milan.

3 Jun – Reinstatement of the Cisalpine Republic.

4 Jun – Masséna must capitulate in Genoa.

9 Jun – Battle of Montebello.

14 Jun – Battle of Marengo; at the moment of victory Louis Charles Antoine Desaix is killed by a musket ball . The same day, in Egypt, Jean-Baptiste Kleber is assassinated.

15 Jun – In Alessandria, Italy, signing of a convention between the French and Austrian commands. The strongholds of Piedmont and Lombardia, the cities of Genoa, Savona and Urbino are handed over to the French; the Austrians retreat beyond the Oglio.

21 Jun – The French army enters Turin.

23 Jun – Louis-Gabriel Suchet occupies Genoa. Bonaparte orders the collection of a war contribution across the length and breadth of the Cisalpine Republic, to be paid by the well-known supporters of Austria.
2 Jul – Return of Napoleon Bonaparte to Paris.

22 Jul – Bonaparte writes to Masséna: "To set an example, loot and burn the first village of Piedmont which will revolt".

26 Jul – Traders and individual people once again become free to be idle on Sundays.
12 Aug – Setting in place of a commission in charge of drawing up the Civil Code; members are: Bigot de Préameneu, Tronchet, Portalis and Maleville.

28 Aug – Napoleon Bonaparte visits Jean-Jacques Rousseau's room in Ermenonville, near Paris.
5 Sep – Malta falls into the hands of the English.

7 Sep – Napoleon Bonaparte sends a demurrer to the Count of Provence.

23 Sep – Bonaparte lays the foundation stone of the monument for Desaix and Kléber.

27 Sep – A Ministry of the Treasury is appointed, by a split of the Ministry of Finance.

30 Sep – Signing of the Convention of Mortefontaine between France and the United States of America, which settles the hostilities that had erupted during the Quasi-War.
1 Oct – The third Treaty of San Ildefonso is secretly concluded between Spain and France, by which Spain returns Louisiana to France.

3 Oct – Metge, the author of a pamphlet who was inciting people for assassinating Napoleon Bonaparte, is arrested.

10 Oct – The sculptor Giuseppe Ceracchi is arrested at the Opera while he was getting ready to assassinate Bonaparte.

20 Oct – Forty-eight thousand people's names are struck off the emigrants’ list.
5 Nov – Monsignor Giuseppe Spina, the Pope's representative, reaches Paris in order to negotiate the Concordat.

8 Nov – Chevalier, a chemist suspected of making an infernal machine, is arrested.
3 Dec – Jean Victor Marie Moreau crushes the Austrians at Hohenlinden.

24 Dec – Napoleon Bonaparte escapes unscathed from an attack on rue Saint-Nicaise . There are 22 dead and 56 injured.

25 Dec – Moreau signs the armistice of Steyr, near Vienna, with the Archduke Charles.

1800 August 4 - French attack British convoy (details)


5 Jan – A hundred and thirty Jacobins, alleged accomplices of the attack staged on rue Saint-Nicaise, are deported to the Seychelles without judgment.

7 Jan – Beginning of the trial of the authors of the attack. Fifty-two citizens are put under surveillance; they are forbidden to reside in the Seine and the neighbouring departments.

9 Jan – Several death sentences are passed: Demerville, Arena, Ceracchi and Topino-Lebrun.

11 Jan – Execution of Chevalier.

15 Jan – In Treviso, an armistice is signed between French and Austrian armies.

18 Jan – Carbon, royalist agent and one of the main instigators of the attack of rue Saint-Nicaise, is arrested.

20 Jan – Execution of Metge and two of his friends.

28 Jan – Arrest of the royalist Saint-Réjant.

30 Jan – Execution of Ceracchi, Arena, Dermerville and Topino-Lebrun.
6 Feb – In Foligno, an armistice is signed between Joachim Murat and the King of Naples. Napoleon Bonaparte limits the number of foundings that the government will support to thirty thousand. Cancellation of assistance to single mothers.

7 Feb – Seditious gatherings, rebellions, assassinations and robberies become liable to be reported to special courts which have neither jury nor appeal or reversal of judgment.

9 Feb – Peace between France and Austria is signed at Lunéville.

27 Feb – Napoleon Bonaparte writes to the Tsar Paul I for denouncing the arrogance and insolence of the British.
4 Mar – Beginning of Thomas Jefferson's presidency in the new capital of the United States of America: Washington.

6 Mar – Negotiations start with Russia.

8 Mar – The four departments of the left bank of the Rhine are reunited with France.

14 Mar – Resignation of William Pitt "the Younger"; Henry Addington succeeds him as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

18 Mar – In Florence , Tuscany: peace is signed between France and the Kingdom of Naples.

21 Mar – Reuniting of the Duchy of Parma with France. The Treaty of Aranjuez is signed on between France and Spain; it confirms the terms presented in the secret treaty of San Ildefonso.

23 Mar – Paul I is assassinated; his son Alexander I succeeds him.

28 Mar – Establishment of a commission in charge of drafting the criminal code.

29 Mar – Signing of a treaty with the Kingdom of Naples; its ports are forbidden to the British.
1 Apr – In Paris: opening of the trial of Carbon and Saint-Réjant.

2 Apr – A British fleet under Admiral Hyde Parker bombards Copenhagen; Horatio Nelson "turns a blind eye" in order not to see Parker's signal to cease fire.

21 Apr – Carbon and Saint-Réjant are guillotined.
8 May – At Saint-Domingue (Santo-Domingo), Toussaint Louverture promulgates a constitution.

12 May – In Paris: preliminary conference on the Concordat with Monsignore Giuseppe Spina.

13 May – Breaking up of the Cisalpine Republic into twelve departments.

20 May – Beginning of the "War of the Oranges" between Spain and Portugal.

28 May – Peace is signed between England and Denmark.
3 Jun – Napoleon and Joséphine entertain the sovereigns of Etrurian Kingdom at Malmaison.

6 Jun – Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Badajoz that ends the "War of the Oranges".

17 Jun – Peace is signed between England and Russia.

21 Jun – Arrival of the cardinal-Secretary of State Ercole Consalvi in Paris; he is vested with full powers for signing the Concordat.

22 Jun – Creation of sixty mercantile brokers with the Paris Stock Exchange.

27 Jun – The French army leaves Cairo.
12 Jul – Joseph Bonaparte is given charge of negotiating and signing a Concordat.

15 Jul – The Concordat is signed.

19 Jul – The play of the water fountains restarts in Versailles.

23 Jul – Louis Ripault, librarian of the First Consul, submits an analysis of the contents of the newspapers to him every day. Beginning of the discussion of the Civil Code in the Council of State.

31 Jul – Organization of the national gendarmerie.
3 Aug – Establishment of a commission in charge of drafting the commercial code.

5 Aug – Horatio Nelson attacks on Boulogne but fails.

6 Aug – Journalists are no longer supposed to speak of religion and its ministers.

10 Aug – Establishment of a commission in charge of drafting the rural code.

15 Aug – New failure of attack on Boulogne by Nelson.

24 Aug – The elector of Bavaria accepts the treaty of Lunéville. He renounces his possessions of the left bank of the Rhine.

31 Aug – In Alexandria, Egypt: General Jacques François de Menou de Boussay surrenders.
2 Sep – Evacuation from Egypt.

6 Sep – Institution of the general inspectors of the public exchequer.

7 Sep – Napoleon Bonaparte sets up house in Saint-Cloud.

8 Sep – Ratification of the concordat by the First consul.

16 Sep – Creation of a director-general and four customs administrators.

18 Sep – Exhibition of national industry, held at the Louvre.

26 Sep – At the Council of State, the First Consul personally insists that obedience must be specified among women's duties.

29 Sep – Signing of a peace treaty between the French Republic and the Kingdom of Portugal.
1 Oct – Preliminaries for peace are signed between England and France, represented by Louis Otto.

4 Oct – The theophilanthropists lose their right to use churches.

8 Oct – Conclusion of a peace treaty between the French Republic and the Emperor of Russia.

24 Oct – General Charles Leclerc is appointed commander of the expedition to re-establish control over Saint-Domingue.

28 Oct – Dissolution of the Swiss Diet (Tagsatzung).

29 Oct – The Théâtre Feydeau becomes the National Theatre of the Comic Opera.
4 Nov – The four bronze horses brought from Venice to Paris are placed upon the pillars of the consular palace gate.

7 Nov – Napoleon Bonaparte, at the meeting of the Institute proposes to award Alessandro Volta a gold medal in recognition of his experiences on galvanism.

9 Nov – Second Anniversary of 18 Brumaire and proclamation of Napoleon Bonaparte: "Whichever way the eyes are doing, opens a long perspective of hope and happiness... "

12 Nov – A Governor, Géraud Duroc, and four prefects of the palace of the Tuileries are established by order. The same issue rules ceremonials for the reception of ambassadors and other official occasions.

30 Nov – Election of Abbot Grégoire (Louis Grégoire) in the Senate. He is the leader of the Constitutional Church.
3 Dec – Start of Anglo-French negotiations in Amiens, Picardy.

6 Dec – Resumption of work at the Tribunat.

14 Dec – Departure of an expedition to Saint-Domingue (Hispaniola) under the command of General Leclerc.

17 Dec – Renewal of the Treaty with the regency of Algiers; the Dey continues to receive tribute paid by France.

29 Dec – A law decides that death penalty will continue to be applied.

April 5 Copenhagen - British under Nelson destroy moored Danish ships off København to prevent France taking them over

July 6–12 Algeciras - French defeat initial British assault, British counter-attack and defeat Franco-Spanish force.



4 Jan – One can read a report from the police headquarters: "We secretly debit today that the First Consul having asked the Minister of the Treasury four million for the trip to Lyon, the latter replied that it was not possible to give, that extra 1,600,000 francs sufficed to Louis XIV for such a journey; he soon felt the impropriety of his process, and sent his resignation to the government, which has refused".

8 Jan – Departure from Napoleon Bonaparte to Lyons. There should chair the Consulta of the Italian Republic.

26 Jan – Election of Bonaparte as President of the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana).

31 Jan – Back to Paris.
6 Feb – The General Leclerc arrives in Saint-Domingue with orders to suppress the revolt of Toussaint Louverture.

20 Feb – Following reports of police headquarters: "The city is now full of masks is particularly in the Rue St. Honoré and those adjacent they are doing in droves. It engages the year at this kind of entertainment with a kind of frenzy."

24 Feb – "Today looks like a holiday, we usually deal with pleasure."

25 Feb – "In the midst of pleasures more noisy, peace has continued to reign yesterday in Paris and the suburbs."

28 Feb – "The masquerade has continued to roam the streets, squares, docks and bridges, until nightfall ... The pleasures have not been quieter in the suburbs than within the city. The working class gives himself completely..."
1 Mar – Following reports of police headquarters: "The day passed as the previous pleasure in feasting and dancing ... it is impossible to describe how far we pushed the year madness masquerades and disguises."

8 Mar – The Directorate General of Public Instruction replaces the Service of Science and Arts.

17 Mar – Eleven archbishops and bishops are removed from the list of émigrés by order of the First Consul.

18 Mar – Two hundred and forty members of the Legislature and eighty members of the Tribunes are deprived Senatus consultum the right to stand for election. Among them are major opposition leaders: Pierre Daunou, Maximin Isnard, Benjamin Constant.

19 Mar – Napoleon Bonaparte visits the National Library, located at the Louvre. "He was particularly attached, says the Gazette de France, to examine the medals, including those of Alexander and Caesar set appeared more special attention. He also looked forward to the arms of Henri IV, which he wielded the sword, he even measured".

24 Mar – Establishment of a committee responsible for drafting the Code of Civil Procedure.

25 Mar – Peace is signed in Amiens with England.

27 Mar – Bonaparte shows for the first time in civilian clothes. He wears the dress of embroidered state councilors, with white stockings and shoes with buckles.
4 Apr – The legislative body listens to a speech by Jean-Etienne Portalis. This tends to prove that religion adopted and recognized by the State is necessary and that the Catholic religion in this regard deserves preference.

7 Apr – The Tribunes adopt the Concordat by a majority of 78 votes against 7.

8 Apr – The Concordat is adopted by the legislative body by 228 votes against 21. It will come into effect by Act of 18 Germinal, year X.

9 Apr – Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara, papal legate, is received by the First Consul. 15 000 francs are allocated to each newly appointed archbishop "for expenses". Bishops receive 10 000 francs only.
10 Apr – Monseigneur Jean-Baptiste de Belloy, 92 years old, is installed at Notre-Dame as archbishop of Paris.

11 Apr – A special council chaired by First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte meets at Malmaison to prepare an act of amnesty for immigrants.

14 Apr – François-René de Chateaubriand publishes "The Spirit of Christianity" and dedicates it to the First Consul.

18 Apr – Easter Sunday. The consuls attend the celebration of the first religious holiday of the Consulate, at Notre-Dame-de-Paris. Official proclamation of the Concordat throughout France.

20 Apr – Bonaparte orders the conversion of his bathroom into a chapel, "putting over the ice table, or a tapestry."

26 Apr – Amnesty is granted by Senatus consultum to any individual not yet removed from the list of emigrants who returns to France later than 23 Sep 1802 and who is willing to swear the new government.
1 May – A law establishes the system of public education.

4 May – Declaration of Napoleon Bonaparte to the Council of State: "Never has the military government will take in France, unless the nation is stupefied by fifty years of ignorance ... It is not as general as I govern, but because the nation believes that I have the qualities unique to civilian government."

6 May – The Tribunes proposes "that is given to General Bonaparte, First Consul, a striking pledge of national recognition."

7 May – General Delmas, Colonel Fournier and squadron leader Donnadieu stopped. They are accused of preparing the assassination of Bonaparte.

8 May – Senator Augin de Lespinasse proposes to appoint Bonaparte consul for life. A Senatus consultum declaring elected First Consul "for ten Years immediately following ten years for which he was named" brings together 61 votes against 2.
9 May – Napoleon Bonaparte says in a message of thanks sent to the Senate: "The vote of the people invested me the highest office. I do not think myself sure of his confidence, if the act is not sanctioned by a vote." – 10 May – A consular decree announces the holding of a plebiscite. The question: "Will Napoleon Bonaparte be consul for life?".

14 May – Amnesty is granted for crimes of desertion committed on French territory by noncommissioned officers and soldiers of the French troops.

18 May – A law provides for the levying of sixty thousand conscripts.

19 May – The Legion of Honor is established by a law which collects 166 votes against 110.

20 May – The slave trade is reestablished by law and upheld slavery in French colonies "in accordance with laws and regulations prior to 1789".

28 May – The Prefect of Police informs Bonaparte a conspiracy has been organized against him by Bernadotte.

30 May – Circular of the Minister of Police to the prefects of departments: "I think, citizen Prefect, it's my duty to warn you against all rumors with which it seeks to disturb and make fools in departments. Paris is quiet and can not be shaken;, no conspiracy has threatened days of the First Consul; he can have nothing to fear except excessive work and sleepless nights which he dedicates to interests of the Republic."
7 Jun – In Santo Domingo, Toussaint Louverture is arrested.

24 Jun – In Rennes, General Simon, Chief of Staff of Bernadotte at the army of the West, is arrested with some of his officers. They are accused of plotting to raise arms against the tyrant Bonaparte.
2 Jul – The construction of the Quai d'Orsay is decided by consular decree.

8 Jul – In accordance with Article 16 of the Concordat, the Pope appoints five French cardinals. Among them, Monsignor Joseph Fesch, Napoleon's uncle.

14 Jul – Proclamation of the First Consul to the French people: "After thirteen years of work, the 14th of Jul is more precious for you, more majestic for posterity. You have overcome all obstacles, and your destiny is fulfilled."
27 Jul – Napoleon Bonaparte to the Dey of Algiers: "If you do not suppress the license of your ministers who dare insult my agents, and of your ships who dare insult my flag, I'll land 80 000 men on your side and I'll destroy your regency."
2 Aug – Napoleon Bonaparte is proclaimed First Consul for life by the Senate.

4 Aug – The Constitution of year VIII is overhauled by Senatus consultum. The prefects are invited by a ministerial circular to celebrate the anniversary of the birth of the First Consul.

15 Aug – The First Consul's birthday is celebrated with great pomp.

20 Aug – On the occasion of a representation of Andromaque by Jean Racine, the First Consul, accompanied by Madame Bonaparte, takes possession of the box specially fixed up for him at the French Theater.

21 Aug – Bonaparte chairs the Senate for the first time.

27 Aug – Incorporation of the island of Elba into France.

31 Aug – The Dey of Algiers accepts Bonaparte's claims.
11 Sep – Piedmont is united to France by Senatus consultum.

13 Sep – At Saint-Domingue, uprising of black slaves.

15 Sep – Removing of Joseph Fouché's Department of General Police.

20 Sep – Installation of Napoleon Bonaparte at the palace of Saint-Cloud.

22 Sep – Bonaparte visits the Exhibition of National Industry in the Louvre and the Salon of Painting and Sculpture.

30 Sep – First Consul requires Swiss cantons to accept his mediation about conflict between the Federalists and the Unitarians.
4 Oct – The National Guard, "daughter" of the French Revolution, becomes Municipal Guard.
19 Nov – The Directorate General of Museums is created.

22 Nov – Four "ladies" (Mesdames de Luçay, de Talhouët, de Lauriston et de Rémusatt) are designated for service with Josephine.
5 Dec – The British ambassador presents his credentials to the First Consul in solemn audience. For this occasion Napoleon Bonaparte features, at the hilt of his sword, a diamond known as The Regent.

7 Dec – Employees of direct contributions receive an uniform and a sword.

10 Dec – A decree provides that Latin and Mathematics are the main lessons taught in high schools.

23 Dec – Magistracy find back its former costume.

24 Dec – Solemn installation of the first President of the Court, Jean-Mathieu Seguier. He is a returned emigrant after Brumaire, the son of a famous Attorney General of the former regime.

27 Dec – Installation of Chief of Justice Claude-Ambroise Régnier, preceded by a mass celebrated in the great hall of the Law Courts by the Archbishop of Paris.



8 Jan – The salaries of clergy cease to be seized.

23 Jan – Napoleon Bonaparte leaves the palace of St. Cloud to the Tuileries, left four months earlier.

26 Jan – Lucien Bonaparte becomes a member of the Institute, appointed by his brother.
19 Feb – Switzerland concludes with France a treaty of defensive alliance.

20 Feb – Napoleon Bonaparte says: "The Government says with justifiable pride: only England can not now fight against France."

26 Feb – By consular decree, each French cardinal receives 45,000 Francs for his installation costs. An additional annual salary of 30,000 Francs is also granted.

28 Feb – The First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte inspects, on horseback, works of the Ourcq channel.
10 Mar – Regulation of the practice of Medicine.

13 Mar – Napoleon Bonaparte asks the Minister of Marine how to do the most damage possible to the English trade in the event of a maritime war.

16 Mar – Organization of Notaries.

18 Mar – King George III of England calls for credits in Parliamen. He has to face French preparations for war.

28 Mar – The new French currency will display the head of the First Consul. The value of the Franc is fixed to five grams of silver.
1 Apr – The names of saints and personages of ancient history become, from that date, the only accepted ones as given names for Public Record Office.

8 Apr – Departmental Coucils get the right to vote a salary increase for archbishops and bishops in their dioceses, "if circumstances so require."

9 Apr – Establishment of the sixteen first auditors at the State Council. Their salary is two thousand Francs a year.

11 Apr – Establishment of Pharmacy schools (there are six).

12 Apr – A law regulates the operation of factories and workshops. It prohibits coalitions of workers and establishes the protection of trademarks.

13 Apr – Napoleon Bonaparte returns to settle in Saint-Cloud.

14 Apr – The Bank of France obtains the exclusive privilege of issuing banknotes, for fifteen years.

16 Apr – The levying of sixty thousand conscripts is included in legislation.

30 Apr – Sale of Louisiana to the United States of America. Price: 80 million Francs, of which 20 million are deducted as compensation to Americans affected by maritime operations.
3 May – Resumption of Pierre Corneille's Polyeucte at the French Theater, following an express order of First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte.

7 May – The wages of Cardinal Joseph Fesch, Ambassador of France to Rome, are determined by his nephew to 150,000 Francs plus 100,000 Francs for expenses.

12 May – Treaty of Amiens is broken. The British Ambassador leaves Paris.

13 May – The British government expresses its willingness to keep Malta for ten years. He claims also that the French evacuate Holland.

16 May – Rupture between France and England.

17 May – An embargo is imposed by the British government on the French ships and the Netherlands' ones. England seizes more than 1,200 vessels and 200 million of goods.

20 May – The First Consul announces, in a message to the Senate, the Legislative body and the Tribunes, the war with England.

22 May – Order is given to arrest all Englishmen being in France.

23 May – Declaration of war by England.

28 May – One hundred twenty-eight companies of Coast Guard gunners are created.

30 May – Soldiers on leave are ordered to join without delay their regiments.
10 Jun – The regulation of high-schools is established by decree.

13 Jun – From that day, in the countries gathered to France, all public acts will be written in French.

14 Jun – French army is organized for the proposed invasion of Britain, and is named "Armée d'Angleterre".

20 Jun – The introduction into the French ports of food and goods arriving from British colonies or England is prohibited.

22 Jun – The success of the war against England is the subject of public prayers.

24 Jun – First Consul begins a tour of inspection in Northern France and Belgium.
19 Aug – The offer of mediation from Russia faces the refusal of England.

21 Aug – Georges Cadoudal and some other Chouans, led by an English ship, clandestinely land at Biville cliff, in Normandy.

31 Aug – The students are exempted from conscription.
10 Sep – The extraordinary works of bridges and causeways, digging and repair of canals, draining of swamps receive an allocation of fifteen million Francs.

20 Sep – From First Consul to Jean-Antoine Chaptal, Minister of Interior: "I am, citizen Minister, dissatisfied with the city of Paris. The budget of this city for the year XI is not yet finalized while year is over [the year XI ended on 23rd Sep 1803]. My intention is that these delays cease."

24 Sep – Napoleon Bonaparte, wearing National Guard uniform, attends a concert for the Feast of the founding of the Republic.

27 Sep – By consular decree: "To ensure freedom of the press, no publisher can sell a book before it is presented to a board of review."
1 Oct – (8 Vendemiaire Year XII) Napoleon Bonaparte decides that "there will be erected, in Paris, at the center of the Place Vendome, a column like the one erected in Rome in honor of Trajan ... surmounted by a pedestal supporting the statue of Charlemagne".

5 Oct – A company of interpreters is created. It is intended to be used in the army for the invasion of Britain.

11 Oct – Bonaparte himself writes an instruction for the crews of landing craft.

12 Oct – Eleven military depots are created in order to detain conscripts convicted of refractory.

14 Oct – The bust of Jean Bart is installed in the City Hall of Dunkirk.

15 Oct – Expulsion of Madame de Staël.

23 Oct – The First Consul gives audience to Dr. Guillotin who introduces him, on behalf of the Central Committee of vaccinia, a report on this new mode of inoculation.
3 Nov – Napoleon Bonaparte visits the fleet set up in Boulogne and inspects the troops.

18 Nov – Back in St. Cloud.

21 Nov – Installing the Tuileries for the winter season.

23 Nov – The British prisoners of war must be locked at Verdun if they are civilians, in the citadels of Charlemont and Valenciennes if they are soldiers or sailors.

24 Nov – Bonaparte to Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord: "I am pressed for money: 16 million Francs are due on 1 Vendemiaire [24 Sep]. I would like the Minister of the Treasury to extricate 16 million Francs of letters of exchange on Spanish Treasury... Letters would be accepted or would not... If they were not, it would be a natural subject of dispute with Spain, whether on the contrary, they are, they will be settled within eight days, and from that moment we have the money arrived in Paris before the end of Frimaire [22 Dec]. "

25 Nov – Forty students from the military school of Fontainebleau over the age of eighteen shall be appointed second lieutenants in advance. Sixty students from Saint-Cyr Prytaneum with the age of sixteen shall be appointed quartermaster.

29 Nov – Bonaparte to minister Chaptal: "I desire a song for the invasion of England ... I know it has been presented several comedies of fact, it should make a choice for them to play in different theaters of Paris, and especially to the camps of Boulogne, Bruges and other places where the army stays."
1 Dec – Establishment of Workers' booklet.

2 Dec – Order is given to condemn to death the leaders of rebel conscripts department of Maine-et-Loire, Vendee and Deux-Sevres.

12 Dec – Napoleon Bonaparte asks for information on political opinions, abilities, wealth and probity of candidates for Senate and Legislature, "so I can intervene, says he, whenever it is presented people with bad principles and little regarded."

20 Dec – The Legislative body loses the right to appoint its chairman.

24 Dec – The Academy of Arts of New York elects Bonaparte as a member.

25 Dec – Charles Nodier is interrogated at police headquarters and taken to the Force jailhouse. He is the author of the libel La Napoleone and had written to the First Consul to denounce himself. – 30 Dec – Bonaparte visits again Boulogne, inspecting the fleet and visiting new harbours Ambleteuse and Wimereux.

May 23, 24 and 27 - 4 ships take on Tripolitan gunboat force (details)

May 31, June 1 - Adams vs Tripolitan gunboats

- Duckworth (British) defeats Rochambeau (French) near Santo Domingo



6 Jan – Napoleon Bonaparte returns to Paris.

15 Jan – Appointment of Joachim Murat as Governor of Paris: it's a monarchic title that Bonaparte exhumes for the benefit of his brother-in-law.

16 Jan – The First Consul reports on the situation of the Republic, inside and outside, in a message to the Senate. Clandestine landing of thirty-five royalists sent by England to organize the assassination of Bonaparte.

24 Jan – Formal announcement of the King of England: he will never abandon the cause of the Bourbons.
15 Feb – Arrest of General Jean Victor Marie Moreau.
17 Feb – Report of the Chief Justice on a conspiracy involving Jean Victor Marie Moreau, Jean-Charles Pichegru and Georges Cadoudal.

19 Feb – Monsignor Bernier, bishop of Orleans, orders prayers for the preservation of life of the First Consul.
25 Feb – Napoleon Bonaparte removes the jury for two years in the trial of attacks against his person and against the security of the Republic.

28 Feb – Arrest of Jean-Charles Pichegru which is led to the Temple jailhouse.
9 Mar – Georges Cadoudal is arrested at his turn.
10 Mar – The three consuls, Joseph Fouché, Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord and the High Judge Claude-Ambroise Régnier, meeting in Council of Government, decide the kidnapping of the Duke of Enghien. The same day, Bonaparte orders three hundred dragoons to cross the Rhine river, to surround the town of Ettenheim and to remove the Duke of Enghien and his followers.

15 Mar – The Duke of Enghien is arrested.
20 Mar – The Duke of Enghien arrives at Vincennes at five o'clock. Six hours later, he appears before a military commission.

21 Mar – At three o'clock, the Duke of Enghien is executed by firing squad. Napoleon Bonaparte says: "The Duke of Enghien conspired as another, we had to treat him like any other. I am the man of the state, I am the French Revolution and I argue". A law dated the same day promulgates the "French Civil Code".

27 Mar – The Senate asks Bonaparte to restore its authority in families. It's Fouché who introduced that motion.
6 Apr – Jean-Charles Pichegru is found strangled in his prison.
13 Apr – The Privy Council chooses for General Bonaparte the title of Emperor.

23 Apr – Jean-François Curée, a Tribunat member, suggests that Napoleon Bonaparte is proclaimed Emperor of the French and the imperial dignity became hereditary in his family.

30 Apr – Start of the discussion of the motion Curée at the Tribunes.
3 May – Motion is unanimously adopted, minus one vote.

10 May – Bonaparte's wish is to be crowned by the Pope.

16 May – On behalf of the State Council, Jean-Etienne Portalis brings to the Senate a draft Senatus consultum who proclaims Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor of the French.

18 May – The Senatus-consultum is approved by the Senate unanimously minus three votes.

19 May – Fourteen Empire marshals are appointed: Berthier, Murat, Moncey, Jourdan, Masséna, Augereau, Bernadotte, Soult, Brune, Lannes, Mortier, Ney, Davoust, Bessières, plus four marshals-Senators: Kellermann, Lefebvre, Perignon, Sérurier.

20 May – The establishment of the Empire is proclaimed in the major squares of Paris by a procession which travels the streets.

21 May – The Monitor publishes a paper protocol: the ministers and marshals will be treated in Monseigneur, the great dignitaries of Serene Highness.

22 May – Napoleon says to a deputation of Tribunate: "I like to owe everything to the people, this feeling only makes me dear new honors that I am dressed."

26 May – The Italian Consulta gives orders to erect a monument to the glory of the Emperor. The same day, it tells the Minister of Marine: "The Italian Republic owes to me the price for twelve boats and two frigates. I estimate the price is 2,400,000 livres".

28 May – Georges Cadoudal, his accomplices and Jean-Victor Marie Moreau have their trial opened before a Criminal court of the Department of Seine without judging jury.
6 Jun – Publication of a formal protest of the Count of Provence against the appointment of Napoleon.

7 Jun – The functions of the special courts are extended.
10 Jun – Georges Cadoudal is sentenced to death, with nineteen of his accomplices (including the Duke Armand de Polignac); two years in prison for Moreau.

11 Jun – The sentencing to death of the Duke of Polignac, a former comrade of Napoleon Bonaparte at the military school, is commuted by him in custody until the peace.
12 Jun – Establishment of a monopoly on funeral benefit of the Church.
21 Jun – Seven accomplices of Cadoudal, sentenced to death, get their grace of Napoleon.
25 Jun – Cadoudal and eleven of his accomplices are executed.

26 Jun – A decree orders that the new coins will now legendary "Emperor Napoleon".
3 Jul – Permission is granted to comedians of the Comédie-Française to take the title of the Emperor's ordinary Comedians.

8 Jul – The Emperor leaves officially Saint-Cloud to Paris to receive new letters of credence of foreign diplomats.

9 Jul – In Paris, Napoleon attends a military parade, the first one since his elevation to the Empire.

10 Jul – The Ministry of Religious Affairs is created. Joseph Fouché becomes Minister of General Police.

13 Jul – The Holy Sacrament, when passing on the public way, will now receive military honors.

14 Jul – Napoleon goes to the Invalides to distribute, seated on a throne, the first crosses of the Legion of Honor. He is preceded by the Eagles of the French Empire, ministers, marshals, and dignitaries of the imperial house.

17 Jul – Napoleon tells the Minister of the Treasury: "I wish that diamonds and pearls, that are the public treasury, should be installed in different decorations for the Empress."

18 Jul – The Emperor begins a great inspection tour, from Boulogne to Treves, through Calais, Dunkirk, Ostend, Arras, Mons, Aachen, Cologne and Mainz.
12 Oct – Napoleon 1 is back in Saint-Cloud.

16 Oct – At the Mount Genevra pass, Hautes-Alpes, is laid the foundation stone of an obelisk in honor of the Emperor.

26 Oct – Establishment of the list of those attending the coronation of Napoleon.
2 Nov – Pope Pius VII leaves Rome and begins the journey that should take him to Paris to crown Napoleon.

9 Nov – The Grand Orient de France, the largest Masonic organization in France and the oldest in Continental Europe, elects Lucien Bonaparte as Grand-Master.

18 Nov – The Imperial Pages, the sons of generals and senior officials, appear for the first time.

22 Nov – The offices of charity have in Paris 103,454 needy rescued.

25 Nov – Napoleon 1 goes before the Pope arrived at Fontainebleau.

28 Nov – The Emperor and the Pope share a carriage to get to Paris.
29 Nov – Napoleon and Josephine receive from Cardinal Joseph Fesch the nuptial blessing in the chapel of the Tuileries, at midnight.

30 Nov – The Grand Bodies of the state come to pay homage to the Pope.
2 Dec – Napoleon 1 is crowned at Notre-Dame.

3 Dec – Report of the Prefecture of Police: "Today the Stock Exchange was in no way more interesting than yesterday: few people, few business and languid arrangements consistently negative".

5 Dec – Eagles are formally distributed at the Champ de Mars, in the presence of the Emperor. Jean-Nicolas Faure, a student, rushes through the crowd toward the imperial throne, crying: "Liberty or Death." He is arrested.

6 Dec – Napoleon 1 receives, in the throne room at the Tuileries Palace, prefects and presidents of the electoral colleges of hundred eight Departments of the Empire. The Grand Bodies of state, ministers and marshals are present.

8 Dec – More than seven thousand delegates from the army, navy and National Guard are received in the Grand Gallery of the Louvre.

9 Dec – The student Faure is interned at Charenton "to be treated as insane until his complete recovery."

11 Dec – Presentation of the Institute of tributes to Napoleon 1.

12 Dec – Order of Minister of Police is given to search and seize an engraving on the Coronation which is sold, under the counter, at the Palace of Tribunes. It reads thus: "Pius is stain".

13 Dec – Police arrests a heretofore magistrate Beugnet of Pommeraie: he broadcasts an illegal pamphlet entitled "Funeral Oration of the Duke of Enghien".

14 Dec – A police report indicates an anagram circulating in Paris. "Napoleon, empereur des Français (Napoleon, Emperor of the French)" becomes: "Ce fol empire ne durera pas son an (This crazy empire will not last a year)."

16 Dec – Napoleon is solemnly received at City Hall.

17 Dec – An Eagle takes place in the coat of arms of Napoleon.

20 Dec – Appointment of Jacques-Louis David as the first painter of the Emperor. He is ordered to execute four paintings on the coronation.

22 Dec – Celebration of a Mass by the Pope in Saint-Sulpice.

25 Dec – Increase the price of bread, a penny per pound.

26 Dec – Celebration of a Mass by Pope Pius VII at Notre-Dame-de-Paris, Napoleon 1 attending.

27 Dec – Napoleon says: "By giving me the crown, my people have committed to make every effort that circumstances would require him to retain the brilliance that is necessary for its prosperity and its glory like mine" .

30 Dec – Each of the prelates who attended the coronation of Napoleon I receives a snuff box decorated with a portrait of the Emperor, estimated at twelve thousand Francs each. The officiating, canons and priests, share a sum of fifty thousand Francs.

February 15 Pulo Aura - French attack British convoy

August 3, 7, 23/24 and 28 and September 2–5 raids on Tripoli (details)



1 Jan – Mass in the chapel of the Tuileries in the presence of the Emperor. Then New Year wishes from the main bodies of the State, marshals, ministers, dignitaries and princes.

4 Jan – A Denis, supposedly a lawyer, is arrested, "accused of holding about the most indecent cons S. M. the Emperor and have pushed up the fury advise a woman to take his own life."

5 Jan – Police report: "We celebrated Kings in almost all families, the people and the workers were common in taverns."

6 Jan – Ball in the Opera Hall, organized by the marshals for Empress Josephine. It will cost twenty thousand Francs to each of them.

7 Jan – At the Sstock Exchange: "The cases were languishing, and the five percent appeared tilted downward, it appears no takers".

14 Jan – A statue of Napoleon 1 is inaugurated in the Chamber of Legislature.

17 Jan – Sixty thousand conscripts are removed.

19 Jan – Increase of the price of the bag determined by the coal merchants: it now will be worth 7 Francs instead of 6.25 Francs.

20 Jan – Those who have applied the new prices are agreed "as instigators and leaders of coalition". Cancellation of the increase.

21 Jan – Celebrating of the anniversary of the death of Louis XVI at the former Duke of Narbonne's; assistance in mourning, is large.

26 Jan – It is decided that the state seal will bear the effigy of the Emperor sat on his throne, the crown on the head. The other side will show the Imperial Eagle based on the lightning.

28 Jan – A novel by Jerome Pigott-Lebrun, containing "licentious jokes about the ceremonies of the Christian religion" is forbidden.

30 Jan – Creation of the Grand Cordon of the Legion of Honor.
2 Feb – Appointment of Forty-eight large columns of the Legion of Honor. There are the brothers of the Emperor, marshals, ministers (including Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord and Joseph Fouché), Cardinals Fesch (archbishop of Lyon), Cambacérès (Archbishop of Rouen) and Belloy (archbishop of Paris).

4 Feb – A decree signed by Napoleon 1 establishes the numbering of houses per street. Even numbers are right and the odd left over in the river Seine.

22 Feb – It is ordered to the prefect of police to check the masquerades and "we can stop running the streets in clerical dress".

23 Feb – It's Fat-Beef day, continuing on 24 and 25.
9 Mar – A "press office" is created. It has to monitor newspapers, plays, printing and library.

15 Mar – Napoleon 1 is given the title of King of Italy by the Italian Consulta meeting in Paris.
18 Mar – Napoleon's sister Eliza gets from him, in any property, the principality of Piombino.

26 Mar – A collection of four million Francs is made from the fund of Disabled persons, "which is rich and is constantly making considerable savings". They will be used for construction of warships as well as improvements in ports.

28 Mar – From that day the permission of the diocesan bishops will be required to print or reprint of religious books. This permission will be reported verbatim and printed at the beginning of each copy.

30 Mar – Exhibition in the gallery of the Senate of the portrait of Napoleon 1 painted by Jacques-Louis David.

31 Mar – Departure of Napoleon for Italy.
5 Apr – At Lyons, Napoleon's brothers-in-law, Bacciochi and Borghese, receive the title of "Prince".
15 May – Napoleon 1 arrives in Milan.

26 May – Crowning at the Cathedral of Milan.
4 Jun – Annexation to France of Genoa and Liguria.

7 Jun – The boundaries between the French Empire and the Kingdom of Italy are set by decree: the river Po to the mouth of the Ticino, then the Sesia to its mouth. Appointment of Prince Eugene de Beauharnais as Viceroy of Italy. He is the step-son of Napoleon.
11 Jul – Back at Fontainebleau.

14 Jul – Neither ceremony or event for the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille.

15 Jul – The Journal of Debates becomes Journal of the Empire, "more consistent with the nature of our government," says the editor.
2 Aug – Departure of Napoleon 1 for the camp of Boulogne.

9 Aug – Accession of Austria to the Anglo-Russian pact.

27 Aug – The camp of Boulogne is lifted. One hundred and fifty thousand men go from the Channel coast to the Rhine.
3 Sep – Back in St. Cloud. Publication of a manifesto hostile to France, by the Emperor of Austria.

9 Sep – Restoration of Gregorian calendar by Senatus Consultum; it will take effect on 11 Nivose year XIV (1 Jan 1806).

10 Sep – Entry of the Austrians in Bavaria.

16 Sep – The Ambassador of Austria publishes a paper stating that the troops of his sovereign will remain in this country.

21 Sep – Commitment to neutrality of the King of Naples in case of war between France and Austria.

23 Sep – Announcement at the Senate of break with Austria. The sixty thousand men of the class 1806 are called early.

24 Sep – Napoleon 1 begins to head the army.

25 Sep – Passage of the river Rhine by French troops.

25 Sep – Financial panic in Paris.

28 Sep – Meeting of the Bavarian army and the French army. Horatio Nelson takes command of the English fleet by the blockade of Cadiz.
6 Oct – The campaign opens. The French army, reinforced by the Bavarians and the Netherlands, takes the name of Grand Army (Grande Armée).

7 Oct – The river Danube is crossed.

8 Oct – French victory at Westingen.

9 Oct – New victory at Guntzburg.

10 Oct – French army enters Augsburg.

11 Oct – The French are in Munich.

13 Oct – Presentation of Meiningen.

14 Oct – Battle of Elchingen.

15 Oct – Fights of Haag and Wasserburg.

16 Oct – Summation from Napoleon to General Mack: the city of Ulm must surrender.

17 Oct – Surrender of Ulm.

18 Oct – Battle of Nordlingen. Forty flags are captured from the enemy and sent to the Senate.

20 Oct – Procession of the Austrian prisoners before Napoleon 1.

21 Oct – Naval battle of Trafalgar.

28 Oct – A case of contributions or extraordinary is created. It is intended for war contributions paid by the defeated countries.

30 Oct – French army enters Salzburg.
1 Nov – Fight of Lembach.

2 Nov – Fort Passling is taken.

3 Nov – Taking of Ebersberg.

4 Nov – Taking of Steyr.

5 Nov – Battle of Lovers and passage of the river Brenta.

6 Nov – Battle of Amstetten.

7 Nov – Coming in Innsbruck.

8 Nov – Fight of Marien-Zelle.

9 Nov – Taking of Scharnitz and Neustadt.

11 Nov – Fight of Diernstein.

12 Nov – Taking of Leoben.

13 Nov – The French enter Vienna. Schoenbrunn Palace becomes the residence of Napoleon 1.

16 Nov – Surrender of the city of Pressburg to marshal Augereau.

18 Nov – Joachim Murat seizes Brunn.

28 Nov – The Emperor studies the plain that will become the battlefield of Austerlitz.
2 Dec – Battle of Austerlitz: fortieth victory of Napoleon for the first anniversary of his coronation.

4 Dec – Meeting between Napoleon 1 and the Emperor of Austria.

6 Dec – The armistice is signed.

26 Dec – Peace Treaty of Pressburg is signed; it is the end of the Holy Roman Empire.

28 Dec – Decision is taken by the General Council of the Department of Seine to establish a place of Austerlitz and to erect a statue of the Emperor.

30 Dec – Napoleon accepts the nickname "Great" that suggested the Tribunes.

about February - French squadron raids British (details)

July 4? - French capture British East Indiaman (details)

July 4 - 2 Russian ships defeat French gunboat force (details)

July 22 Cape Finisterre - Inconclusive action between British Admiral Calder and French Admiral Villeneuve

August 6 - French attack British convoy (details)

October 21 Trafalgar - Nelson defeats combined Franco-Spanish fleet under Admiral Villeneuve, losing his life but gaining control of the oceans for Britain for the rest of the war

November 4 - British capture 4 French battleship survivors from Trafalgar


1 Jan – The Senate receives the flags captured during the campaign of Austria.

5 Jan – The Mayors of Paris vote the building of an arch of triumph at Napoleon's glory.

26 Jan – Return of Napoleon 1 at Paris.

28 Jan – The Senate decrees a monument at the Emperor.
13 Feb – Napoleon I writes at the Pope: "Your Holiness is the sovereign of Rome, but I am the Emperor. All my enemies must be yours".-

17 Feb – A decree orders the construction of the arch of triumph of the Place de l'Étoile.

19 Feb – A decree prescribes to solemnly celebrate the 15 Aug of each Year, "the feast of Saint-Napoleon and the restoration of the of the Catholic religion in France".

20 Feb – Napoleon orders that the basilica of Saint-Denis will be used as the burial of his House.

22 Feb – A decree prohibits the introduction in France of cotton fabrics manufactured abroad.

26 Feb – Order of Napoleon: an arch of triumph will be erected on the site of the Carrousel at the glory of the French army.
2 Mar – In a speech at the opening of the session of the Legislature, Napoleon says: "My armies have left of defeat when I told them not to battle, I have avenged the rights of weak states oppressed by the strong and my allies have increased in thensance and consider my enemies were humiliated and confused."

3 Mar – A decree adds to the Conservatory of Music a special school of declamation.

12 Mar – In a report presented at the Emperor, the minister of the Interior Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny offers of replacing the statue of Charlemagne by one of Napoleon at the top of the column planned for the Place Vendome.

18 Mar – Establishment of employment tribunals.

21 Mar – Pope Pius VII replies to Napoleon (see above at the date of the 13 Feb): "Your Majesty establishes that in principle he is Emperor of Rome. We meet with the franchise that the Apostolic Pope, now, from both of centuries which no ruler can be proud, sovereign of Rome, does not recognize and never acknowledged in his State than any other at the thensance own".

30 Mar – A statute establishes the rights and duties of members of the Imperial House towards the Emperor. Joseph Bonaparte is named King of Naples by his brother Napoleon.
4 Apr – Publication of a catechism approved by the cardinal legate of the Pope as the only one in use in all Catholic churches of the Empire.

11 Apr – The departments of the Netherlands, Upper-Rhine, Doubs, Jura, Côte-d'Or, Ain, Saone-et-Loire, Rhone and Upper-Saone will pay half the expenses that require the creation of a channel forming the junction of the Rhone and the Rhine rivers, which will be called: Napoleon channel.

14 Apr – A deputation of notables from Bordeaux comes to Paris to ask permission of raising at Bordeaux an equestrian statue of the Emperor.

22 Apr – The Bank of France becomes institution of state.
2 May – The insignia of the Legion of Honor will now be surmounted of an imperial crown.

10 May – Foundation of the University.

24 May – Napoleon suppresses the republican regime in Holland.
5 Jun – Napoleon 1 appoints his brother Louis Bonaparte King of Holland. Bernadotte becomes Prince of Ponte-Corvo, Talleyrand becomes Prince of Benevento.

8 Jun – Decree on the theater system. The Odeon Theater becomes Theater of the Empress.

10 Jun – The importation of British goods in the kingdom of Italy is prohibited.

21 Jun – Because of the Pope refuses to expel the English of Rome, French troops occupy the port of Civita Vecchia, by order of Napoleon.

24 Jun – A decree prohibits gambling houses throughout the extent of the French Empire.
10 Jul – Napoleon Ist sends to Italy two French actors troops.

12 Jul – Sixteen states in present-day Germany leave the Holy Roman Empire and joined together in a confederation called "Confederation of the Rhine", under the protectorate of Napoleon.

16 Jul – Creation of a "Fund of service" where the tax collectors have to deposit funds as soon as they recover them.

24 Jul – The troops of infantry receive a new uniform.
1 Aug – At the Diet of Regensburg, fourteen German princes announce their union to the Confederation of the Rhine, under the protectorate of the Emperor of the French.

3 Aug – Closure of the conscription of 1806.

6 Aug – Francis II renounces at the title of Emperor of Germany and proclaims himself Emperor of Austria under the name of Francis 1.

11 Aug – The Count of Metternich, Ambassador of Austria, delivers to Napoleon 1 his letters of credence.

14 Aug – Creation of Majorats, which are hereditary fiefs of the Empire.

15 Aug – The Feast of the Emperor anniversary is celebrated with games, lights and fireworks. Laying of the foundation stone of the arch of triumph of the Etoile.
6 Sep – The King Frederick William III of Prussia, in a letter to the Emperor Alexander I of Russia, declares himself ready to attack "the disturber of the rest of the world" the day when the Russian armies would Mar and when the subsidies of England would have reached.

10 Sep – The Prussian troops begin to move.

12 Sep – They come in Saxony.

13 Sep – Death of Charles James Fox, the only supporter of peace in the british government.

17 Sep – First movements of French troops: the army corps of Marshal Bernadotte turns on in the direction of Bayreuth.

19 Sep – Marshals Davout and Ney get the order of joining the body of their army.

20 Sep – Napoleon 1 sends a call at his German allies.

24 Sep – The Imperial Guard leaves Paris.

25 Sep – Napoleon leaves Saint-Cloud at 4 AM for the campaign.

30 Sep – Creation of the reserve army of the Rhine, in order to keep the communication with the Grand Army committed in Germany, and to be used as backup troops. Victory of Marshal Marmont on a body of Russian army at Castelnuovo.
1 Oct – Ultimatum of Prussia which requires that French troops leave Germany.

5 Oct – First horse race ever in Paris.

6 Oct – Arrived at Bamberg, Napoleon reviews the Imperial Guard and addresses a proclamation to his army.

8 Oct – The French spend the Saale and enter Cobourg.

9 Oct – The first battle of the campaign takes place near the city of Schleitz, in the presence of Napoleon, .

10 Oct – Battle of Saalfeld. Prince Louis of Prussia is killed.

11 Oct – The vanguard of the French army reaches Leipzig.

12 Oct – Taking of Naumburg. Napoleon writes to the King of Prussia, advising him to renounce at the war.

14 Oct – Battle of Jena-Auerstadt.

15 Oct – Napoleon returns on parole six thousand Saxons captured the day before.

16 Oct – Fourteen thousand Prussians locked in Erfurt surrender to Marshal Murat.

17 Oct – Combat and taking of the city of Halle.

18 Oct – Entry of the French army into Leipzig.

19 Oct – Enter at Halberstadt.

20 Oct – Enter at Wittenberg.

21 Oct – Arrival of French headquarters at Potsdam.

22 Oct – Acting at the name of the King of Prussia, the Marquis of Lucchesini arrives at Wittenberg and requests for peace to Napoleon .

23 Oct – Installation of the French command at Charlottenburg.

24 Oct – Emperor Napoleon 1 visites the palace of Sanssouci and the room of Frederick II the Great.

25 Oct – Napoleon reviews his guard at Potsdam.

26 Oct – Napoleon goes and meditates at the tomb of Frederick II, and announces that the sword of the King will be part of the spoils that will be sent to Paris.

27 Oct – Napoleon enters Berlin.

28 Oct – The Prince of Hohenlohe and his 17,000 soldier surrender in Prentzlow.

29 Oct – The city of Stettin surrenders.

30 Oct – French army takes possession of the States of the Duke of Brunswick.

31 Oct – Taking of possession of the country of Hesse-Cassel.
1 Nov – Taking of the city of Castrini by Marshal Davout.

4 Nov – The French enter Posen.

5 Nov – Marshal Bernadotte occupies the city of Schoenberg.

6 Nov – Taking of Lubeck by General Drouet.

7 Nov – The remnants of the army of Blücher capitulate.

8 Nov – French enter Magdeburg.

9 Nov – A contribution of one hundred and fifty million Francs is required from the allies of Prussia.

10 Nov – Taking of possession of the Electorate of Hanover.

11 Nov – Arrival of the Russians, who come at the relief of the Prussians.

16 Nov – A ceasefire is signed between France Prussia at Charlottenburg.

19 Nov – A deputation of the French Senate is received by Napoleon at the royal palace of Berlin.

21 Nov – Napoleon decrees the blockade of the British Isles: all trading with the United Kingdom is prohibited, including neutral countries.

25 Nov – The Emperor leaves Berlin.

28 Nov – Entry of the French Army at Warsaw.
13 Dec – Birth of Charles Leon, the illegitimate son of Napoleon and of Eleanor Denuelle de la Plaigne, maid of honor of Caroline Murat.

19 Dec – Arrival of Napoleon at Warsaw.

22 Dec – Passage of the Vistula river by the cavalry of Marshal Davout.

26 Dec – French victories at Soldau, Golymin and Pultusk.

27 Dec – The French army goes into winter quarters at Pultusk.

February 6 San(to) Domingo - British under Duckworth defeat French under Leissegues (French) off Santo Domingo

July 4 - Russians defeat French in Narenta Channel

July 26 - British defeat Dutch (details)

September 25 - British battleships defeat French frigate force (details)



1 Jan – Napoleon 1 meets Maria Walewska for the first time.

5 Jan – The city of Breslau (nowadays Wroclaw) surrenders.

7 Jan – The British government reacts to the Berlin decree of 21 Nov 1806 by blocking all ports of France and French colonies.

13 Jan – Poland is entirely evacuated by the Russians.

29 Jan – End of winter quarters.

30 Jan – Napoleon leaves Warsaw.
8 Feb – Battle of Preussisch-Eylau.

12 Feb – Fight of Marienwerder.

15 Feb – The city of Schwednitz is taken by French army.

16 Feb – Battle of Ostrolenka.

19 Feb – Fight of Neugardt.

24 Feb – Battle of Glatz.

25 Feb – Fight of Peterswald.

26 Feb – Taking of Braunsberg.
6 Mar – Fight of Wittemburg.

7 Mar – Fight of Zecheren.

12 Mar – Start of the siege of Danzig.

20 Mar – Five legions of reserves are created, composed of conscripts from 1808; they must defend the borders and coasts of the French Empire.
1 Apr – Castle of Finckenstein becomes the headquarters of Napoleon.

7 Apr – Class 1808 (80,000 men) is called in advance.

15 Apr – From Napoleon 1 to Joseph Fouché: "We must give the public a firmer direction ... There is no question of talking incessantly about peace. This is the good way not to have it, but to implement protective measures on all points".

25 Apr – A new alliance is signed between the King Frederick William III of Prussia and the Emperor Alexander I of Russia at Bartenstein. They undertake not to deal with Napoleon before France has been reduced to the boundary of the river Rhine.
4 May – A pact of friendship is signed at Finckenstein between France and Persia.

17 May – The sword of Frederick the Great solemnly enters the Invalides.

26 May – City of Danzig surrenders to Marshal Lefebvre.
6 Jun – Napoleon leaves Finckenstein and enters into campaign.

14 Jun – Battle of Friedland.

16 Jun – French enter Koenigsberg (nowadays Kaliningrad).

19 Jun – Arrival of Napoleon at Tilsit.

21 Jun – A one-month truce with Russia is signed at Tilsit.

25 Jun – Two Emperors Napoleon and Alexander I meet on a raft in the middle of the river Niemen.

28 Jun – King of Prussia arrives in Tilsit.

29 Jun – The three monarchs are holding a friendly conference.
4 Jul – In the Mercure de France (french newspaper): "In vain Nero prospers... Tacitus is already born in the Empire", signed: François-René de Chateaubriand.

6 Jul – The Queen Louise of Prussia arrives at her turn at Tilsit.

8 Jul – The Peace Treaty of Tilsit and a Franco-Russian alliance are signed.

9 Jul – Napoleon I leaves Tilsit.

21 Jul – Prefects of the French Empire are ranked by results obtained in hunting for draft evaders.

22 Jul – The Great-Duchy of Warsaw is created.

27 Jul – Return of Napoleon at Saint-Cloud.

29 Jul – An army of 20,000 men is gathered in Bayonne (Southwest France) in order to invade Portugal, which is still trading with England.
9 Aug – Talleyrand leaves the Foreign Ministry.

11 Aug – The King of Denmark receives from the British government summons to join the anti-French coalition.

15 Aug – A Te Deum is sung at Notre-Dame-de-Paris, on the occasion of Napoleon's bithday and to celebrate peace, Napoleon himself attending.

18 Aug – Jerome Bonaparte, Napoleon's youngest brother, is named King of Westphalia.

19 Aug – The Tribunes are removed by Senatus consultum. Its powers are transferred to the legislative body.

27 Aug – Note of Napoleon to Emmanuel Crétet, Minister of Interior: "Caring for the Imperial Library, first by organizing it. We need a leader for all."
2 Sep – Bombardment of Copenhagen by the English.

3 Sep – The interest rate of money is limited by law to five percent in civil and six per cent in trade.

7 Sep – Copenhagen surrenders to the English.

11 Sep – The french Commercial Code is published.

14 Sep – Surrender of the British expeditionary force in Egypt to Muhammad Ali.

16 Sep – The Court of Auditors is created in Paris.
10 Oct – A treaty outlining the boundaries between the Austrian provinces and the Kingdom of Italy is signed.

12 Oct – General Jean-Andoche Junot is ordered to cross the Spanish border, within twenty-four hours.

14 Oct – Napoleon establishes measures to be taken by allies of France in order to maintain the continental blockade.

15 Oct – From Napoleon to the ambassador of Portugal: "If Portugal does not do what I want, the House of Braganza will no longer reign in Europe in two months".

17 Oct – The French army enters Spain after crossing the Pyrenees Mountains.

20 Oct – The British evacuate Copenhagen, but take the Danish fleet. Portugal officially declares war to England.

22 Oct – A secret alliance is concluded between Portugal and England.

27 Oct – A secret treaty of Fontainebleau between France and Spain plans the sharing of Portugal.
1 Nov – A Superintendent of entertainment is created; the four main theaters of the capital will be under his authority.

11 Nov – An English government injunction requires all neutral ships to pass through England before landing on the continent.

16 Nov – Napoleon I leaves for Milan.

23 Nov – In Milan he takes the following decree: "Any ship, under any flag whatever, having been visited by English or having entered a port in England, will be considered as English and treated as such" .

29 Nov – Prince Regent of Portugal and his family board for Brazil on a British ship.

30 Nov – The French enter Lisbon.
3 Dec – The twenty richest merchants and bankers of Lisbon subscribe to a forced loan of two million Cruzadas.

14 Dec – Inauguration of the French flag in Lisbon, which causes a popular riot.

23 Dec – Portugal is imposed a contribution of one hundred million Francs.

February 19 - British battleships under Duckworth burn several Turkish ships in Dardanelles (details)

May - British vs Turks at mouth of Dardanelles (details)

May 22, 23 Dardanelles - Russians under Admiral Seniavin defeat Turks near Cape Janizary

July 1 Athos (Lemnos/Monte Sancto) - Russians under Seniavin defeats Turks in northern Aegean

August 23 and 31 - Danes defeat British light forces near Copenhagen (details)

September 2–7 Copenhagen - British forces under Admiral Gambier and General Cathcart capture the Danish fleet



1 Jan – Napoleon I returns to Paris.

4 Jan – He visits the studio of First Imperial painter Jacques-Louis David along with Josephine; both can admire the painting of the coronation.

16 Jan – The final status of the Bank of France are set by decree.

21 Jan – The 80,000 men of class 1809 are called early.

22 Jan – The towns of Kehl, Cassel, Wesel and Flushing (Vlissingen) are annexed to the Empire.

28 Jan – French troops receive an order from Napoleon to enter in Catalonia.
1 Feb – A council of government is held in Lisbon by General Junot, who becomes Governor General of the kingdom of Portugal.

2 Feb – French troops enter Rome. They occupate the Castle of Sant'Angelo. A proposal is done by Napoleon to the Emperor of Russia Alexander I to send a Franco-Russian army into Asia "to kneel England".

4 Feb – French troops enter Spain.

15 Feb – The citadel of Pamplona is taken.

16 Feb – Barcelona is taken at its turn.

20 Feb – Joachim Murat becomes "Lieutenant of the Emperor" in Spain.
1 Mar – A new nobility is established in the French Empire.

17 Mar – The University of France replaces the General Directorate of Public Instruction; it is headed by a Grand Master. The Jewish worship is regulated by decree.

18 Mar – Uprising of the Spanish people, at the instigation of the Crown Prince Ferdinand. Abdication of King Charles IV and fall of Manuel Godoy ministry. Prince Ferdinand is proclaimed King.

23 Mar – The French reach Madrid.

27 Mar – The provinces of Urbino, Macerata, Ancona and Camerino, possessions of the Holy See, are united in the Kingdom of Italy. Napoleon is excommunicated by Pope Pius VII.

29 Mar – The Spanish people is called to arms by the junta of Seville.
2 Apr – Napoleon I moves to Bayonne (French Basque country), on the pretext of visiting the southern departments. He indeed awaits the arrival of the King of Spain.

3nd Apr – The Pope's legate, Cardinal Caprara, leaves Paris.

7 Apr – A French detachment penetrates the papal palace in Rome and disarms the Swiss Guards.

14 Apr – Arrival of Napoleon at Bayonne.

20 Apr – King Ferdinand VII of Spain arrives at Bayonne and visits Napoleon.
1 May – Arrival of Charles IV at Bayonne, accompanied by his wife. Napoleon receives them for dinner.

2 May – Anti-French population riot in Madrid ("Dos de Mayo").

5 May – Charles IV puts his crown on Napoleon's disposal by a statement signed by him.

10 May – Ferdinand and his brothers agree with their father's declaration.

18 May – The Spanish princes arrive at their residence of Valençay (center of France), established by Napoleon.

22 May – Pope Pius VII forbids the bishops to obey the French government.

23 May – The canon Llano Ponte calls the inhabitants of Ovido (Asturias) for uprising against the invaders.

24 May – Italian duchies of Parma, Piacenza, and Tuscany are united to French Empire; they become departments of Toro, Arno, Mediterranean and Ombrone.

27 May – Violent anti-French events in Valencia, Spain.

28 May – Uprising of the people of Cadiz.

30 May – Massacres in Granada.

31 May – Valladolid rises up.
2 Jun – In a proclamation addressed to the Spaniards, Napoleon 1 says: "I want to be your regenerator".

3 Jun – Segovia is the scene of violent unrest.

6 Jun – Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's elder brother, is appointed King of Spain. The junta of Seville declares war to France.

11 Jun – French army enters Valladolid after the battle of Cabezon.

12 Jun – First meeting, in Bayonne, of a francophile "Spanish Junta".

13 Jun – The Counselor of the Inquisition of Spain requests the Junta of Bayonne to maintain his institution.

14 Jun –French admiral François-Etienne de Rosily Mesros and his squadron surrender to the spanish insurgents outside the harbour of Cadiz.

16 Jun – Battle at Zaragoza.

18 Jun – Joseph 1, the new King of Spain, is presented to the Junta of Bayonne, which is put in charge of writing a new constitution.

19 Jun – The French leave Cordova and retire to Andujar.
1 Jul – An assault on Saragossa by French troops is repulsed.

15 Jul – Joachim Murat becomes King of Naples in place of Joseph Bonaparte.

20 Jul – Arrival of Joseph Bonaparte in Madrid.

21 Jul – Surrender of Bailen, the first major failure of the Napoleonic armies (20,000 French soldiers, uncercled in Andalusia, are taken prisoners).

25 Jul – Joseph Bonaparte is proclaimed King of Spain during a ceremony in Madrid.

30 Jul – The new king must leave his capital hastily. English army lands in Portugal.
1 Aug – Evacuation of Madrid by French troops. English General Arthur Wellesley of Wellington lands in Portugal.

4 Aug – The French seize a portion of Zaragoza ...

14 Aug – ...before abandoning the siege.

21 Aug – General Junot is defeated at Vimiero, by English troops strengthened with Portuguese patriots.

30 Aug – Junot signs the Convention of Cintra with the English. The French evacuate Portugal.
8 Sep – French Senate approves a special levy of 160,000 soldiers, bringing together the provided classes from 1807 to 1809 and conscripts of 1810 called in advance.

17 Sep – The monopoly of education is granted to the University.

22 Sep – Napoleon leaves Saint-Cloud at five o'clock AM.

27 Sep – He meets Alexander I, Tsar of Russia, on the day of his arrival in Erfurt.
1 Oct – Napoleon 1 has his first visit from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

2 Oct – Another visit from Goethe.

12 Oct – Both Emperors of France and Russia sign an agreement renewing their alliance. The "Grand Army of Germany" is abolished by decree; it takes the name "Army of the Rhine" and is reduced to a hundred thousand soldiers.

14 Oct – Both sovereigns separate with touching demonstrations of friendship.

15 Oct – Nearly simultaneous entry in Spain of an English army and the vanguard of the French army.

18 Oct – Return of Napoleon at Saint-Cloud.

29 Oct – New leaving of the Emperor, this time it's for Spain.
5 Nov – The "King Joseph" and his "court", refugees in Vittoria, see the Emperor Napoleon's arrival.

6 Nov – Napoleon proclaims that "The Emperor commands his army in person".

7 Nov – The evacuation of all hospitals between Tolosa and Vitoria is ordered to make room for future injured soldiers.

10 Nov – The Spaniards are beaten at Espinosa.

13 Nov – From Napoleon to General Dejean, Director of Administration for War, from Burgos: "I've never seen a country where the army was better and more abundantly fed. But shoes and coats, this is what we missed."

14 Nov – From Napoleon to the same Dejean: "I have nothing, I am naked, my army is in need, and your offices make fun of me. Those who are in charge are fools or knaves".

16 Nov – To Marshal Soult: "I long to hear that you went to Santander. Try to seize what belongs to the English. Please put the receiver on all wools and the British and colonial goods". Entry of Soult in Santander.

17 Nov – Again to General Dejean: "My army lacks everything. I am obliged to use extraordinary means, which always produces a bad effect. Your dress office is composed of idiots."

19 Nov – To Emmanuel Crétet, Interior Minister: "The Duke of Infantado and grandees of Spain own half of the kingdom of Naples; evaluate their properties in the kingdom to 200 million Francs is not too much. They also have possessions in Belgium, and Piedmont in Italy, my intention is to sequester".

22 Nov – Marshal Ney enters Soria. His troops begin to Mar towards Madrid.

23 Nov – Battle of Tudela.

28 Nov – The British troops leave Spain and return to Portugal.

30 Nov – Battle of Somo-Sierra.
2 Dec – Arrival of French before Madrid.

4 Dec – Surrender of Madrid. Order of Napoleon I: "The feudal rights are abolished in Spain and the court of the Inquisition is abolished; the number of existing monasteries will be reduced to third; provincial customs are abolished, the Council of Castile is removed, its members will be arrested".

5 Dec – From Napoleon to General Belliard, governor of Madrid: "Billet the officers in the houses of the emigrants, taking care to reserve the best room for a general officer ... Please also prepare stables in convents and houses of emigrants".

7 Dec – Proclamation to the Spaniards: "I went to Madrid. The Rights of War authorized me to give a great example and wash in the blood the wrongs made to me and my nation. I've heard that clemency. Some men, perpetrators of all your woes will only be punished". Start of requisitions, under the authority of Anne-Jean-Marie-René Savary, Duke of Rovigo, who has come specially from Paris.

9 Dec – The Corregidor of Madrid, received in audience by Napoleon, hears the Emperor declaring to him: "I do not refuse to cede my conquest rights to the King [Joseph Bonaparte] and set Him in Madrid, when the thirty thousand citizens of the capital have expressed their feelings and loyalty."

10 Dec – It is ordered that the Gazette of Madrid will appear daily.

11 Dec – Reappearance of English troops in Spain. General Savary reports to the Emperor: "The operation of the first seizure in ten large houses designated by Your Majesty is completed. Yesterday the taxman had received five thousand and a few hundred marks of silver and about 600,000 Francs silver coin. There was still something to receive. I do not count some gold jewelry, diamonds and some pearls he received too."

14 Dec – The amount of money seized in the treasury of the Inquisition, according Belliard, equals 613,493 Francs in French money. Napoleon decides: "Give the order that the funds be deposited promptly at the taxman's, and research all other funds belonging to the Inquisition."

15 Dec – Order is given to proceed with the creation of a Spanish National Guard in Madrid as in provincial towns.

18 Dec – From Napoleon to Joseph, King of Spain: "To live in a year, we must live today, live for today, it takes money ... This is already a fortnight ago, and it is the most precious moments, as are those of force. There is no time to lose to get a stock of thirty million rials in cash". From Savary to the Emperor: "Research done at the Dowager Duchess of Osuna had a full success. We just carry on paying in about fifteen or sixteen quintals of silverware, and the accountant of the house gave a statement to nine million reals revenue".

20 Dec – The new headquarters are set in Zaragoza.

21 Dec – Three hundred quintals of bark of Spain will, by order of Napoleon, be distributed to forty-two cities of the Empire.

22 Dec – Napoleon passes the Guadarrama river with part of his guard. He decides to personally take charge of operations against the English army.

27 Dec – Concentration of the English army in Benavente.

29 Dec – Napoleon defeats the English at Benavente.

9–14 June - Capture of Rosily Squadron

3 March Spain captures French battleship Atlas.



1 Jan – Napoleon I receives a telegram sent by Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès informing him that Austria is preparing to war.

4 Jan – From Napoleon to General Clarke, Minister of War: "I wish the erection of a monument in Erfurt, to consecrate the union of the two Emperors, I'll do the costs."

6 Jan – To his brother Joseph, King of Spain: "I thank you for what you say regarding the New Year. I do not hope that Europe can yet be pacified this year. I hope so little that I signed a decree yesterday to levy 100,000 people".

7 Jan – To Admiral Denis Decrès, Minister of Marine: "Now that the Russian ships are at Toulon, their officers and crews will be maintained, paid and treated as French vessels and crews".

11 Jan – To Joseph, from Valladolid, Spain: "You can make your entrance into Madrid when you think it's advisable."

16 Jan – Battle of La Coruna. Sir John Moore, commanding general of the British army, is killed on the battlefield. His army (what remains of it) must leave Spain.

17 Jan – Napoleon leaves Spain.

22 Jan – Joseph enters again Madrid.

23 Jan – Arrival of the Emperor in Paris.

28 Jan – Declaration of Napoleon to Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, in a cabinet at the Tuileries Palace: "You are a thief, a coward, a man without faith, you do not believe in God, you've missed all your life at all your homework, you have deceived and betrayed everybody, there's nothing sacred about you, you would sell your father ... What do you want? What do you expect? Dare to say! You deserve that I will break you like a glass, I have power, but I despise you too much to bother." Talleyrand sighs: "What a pity that such a great man is so rude!"
6 Feb – From Napoleon to Joseph: "I am sorry that the system changes in Madrid for becoming too indulgent ... I think it is necessary that you show a little severe, and you do not let anyone engaging in false and premature hopes".

7 Feb – To his brother Jerome Bonaparte, King of Westphalia, havink asked for money: "The demand for money is untimely and tactless, at a moment when I do not know how to deal with huge expenses that I have, since my armies of Spain don't yield anything and cost a lot, and my other armies are in my care."

21 Feb – Surrender of Zaragoza; its siege lasted sixty days.
7 Mar – The sovereign members of the Confederation of the Rhine are requested to gather their troops before Mar 20.

9 Mar – Minister of Marine is ordered to send one thousand two hundred sailors to the Rhine Army.

11 Mar – French troops receive order to concentrate on the river Danube.

20 Mar – The Emperor Napoleon 1 orders to prepare a travel library. He calls for "something very distinguished, by the choice of books and editions and by the beauty and elegance of bindings".

21 Mar – From Napoleon to his brother Louis, King of Holland: "The war seems imminent. What you better do is to gather as many troops as possible in order to defend your country and be of some use to the common cause."

24 Mar – To Nicolas-François Mollien, Minister of the Treasury: "The affairs are becoming serious with Austria. Give orders for gathering in Strasbourg four millions Francs in gold and silver, in the shortest possible time. Two millions will be earmarked for expenditure of various departments of the war; the other two will be at my disposal ... If you have bills to Augsburg, and that you can make money with them, I would like to have one million Francs in that place."

27 Mar – Austria issues a manifesto against France.

30 Mar – Napoleon writes detailed instructions for the campaign ahead; they are intended for his chief of staff, Louis-Alexandre Berthier.
1 Apr – From Napoleon 1 to Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny, Minister of Foreign Relations: "Please insert in newspapers articles about everything that is provocative and offensive against the French nation in all that occurs in Vienna ... The purpose of these articles is to establish that they want to make war to us. "

7 Apr – The Austrian troops are massed on the borders of Bavaria.

8 Apr – The Austrian army crosses the river Inn near Braunau.

9 Apr – An aide of the Archduke Charles officialy notifies the declaration to Marshal Lefebvre.

12 Apr – At eight o'clock PM in Paris, Napoleon receives a telegram from Marshal Berthier informing him of the Austrian declaration. The Emperor announces: "I shall set out within two hours".

13 Apr – Napoleon leaves Paris at four o'clock AM.

16 Apr – He arrives in Stuttgart.

17 Apr – Proclamation of Napoleon to his troops: "I come among you at the speed of the eagle ... Our past success are for us a sure guarantee of victory."

19 Apr – Battle of Thann.

20 Apr – Battle of Abensberg. From Napoleon to Marshal André Masséna: "The enemy is retreating at full speed. The battlefield is covered with the dead ... I'll ride and recognize the situation of things at the forefront. "

21 Apr – The Austrian army escapes. Landshut is taken.

22 Apr – Battle of Eckmühl.

23 Apr – Regensburg is stormed. The shock of a bullet bruises the Emperor's right foot.

24 Apr – Battle of Neumarkt. In a proclamation to his army, Napoleon promises: "Within a month we shall be in Vienna".

26 Apr – The French army Mar 1809es on Vienna.

30 Apr – Entry of the troops of marshal Lefebvre in Salzburg.

3 May – Fight of Ebelsberg.

5 May – From Napoleon 1 to marshal Davout, Duke of Auerstaedt: "I suppose you're arriving today in Linz ... Please destroy all coat of arms of the House of Austria. Leave the town guard if it is small. Order a general disarmament. Sequester funds and shops".

10 May – General Oudinot's division enters the suburbs of Vienna.

11 May – Installation of Napoleon at Schoenbrunn Palace.

12 May – Napoleon gives order to bomb Vienna. The Archduke Maximilian abandons his troops.

13 May – The capitulation is signed in Vienna at 2 AM. The gates of the city are occupied by Oudinot at 6 AM. New proclamation of Napoleon to his army: "The princes of the House of Lorraine gave up their capital towm, not as soldiers who give honor to the circumstances and setbacks of the war, but as perjuries pursued by their own remorse ... Soldiers! Be kind to the poor peasants and the good people who both claim to our esteem. Do not keep any pride in our success, but it shows evidence of this justice that punishes the ungrateful and perjury".

14 May – The supplies of food owed by the Austrian population are precisely determined. "Mobile columns" are formed and put in charge to travel the country.

15 May – Proclamation of Napoleon to the Hungarians: "The time has come to regain your independence. I offer you peace, the integrity of your country, your freedom and your constitution ... I want nothing from you, I only want to see you as a free and independent nation. "

16 May – Cities of Altmarkt and Mariazell attempt to resist.

17 May – In his "Imperial camp of Vienna" Napoleon decides to unite Papal States to the French Empire. Rome becomes an imperial and free city.

20 May – General Molitor's division, having crossed the river Danube, is positioned at Gross-Aspern and Essling.

21 May – First day of the battle of Aspern-Essling.

22 May – Second day of the battle of Aspern-Essling. Marshal Jean Lannes is mortally wounded.

23 May – Napoleon escapes an assassination attempt during his stay in Regensburg.

25 May – The Danube bridges destroyed during the second day of the battle of Aspern-Essling are restored.

26 May – French armies of Italy and Germany join up in Semmering.

27 May – Proclamation of Napoleon to the Army of Italy: "Welcome. I'm pleased with you ... The Austrian army of Italy, who one moment sullied by his presence my provinces, who pretended to break my Iron crown, dispersed, beaten, destroyed... thanks to you, is an example of the truth of this motto: « Dio me la diede, guai a chi la tocca ! »".

29 May – Napoleon to Marshal Alexander Berthier, Prince of Neuchâtel: "Cousin, order to demolish the village which forms the bridgehead from Linz, and to establish at its place a reduced at the bridgehead."
5 Jun – Battle of Klagenfurt.

10 Jun – In Rome, the French flag takes over from the papal flag at Sant'Angelo Castle. Pope Pius VII makes public the bull of excommunication of Napoleon.

19 Jun – From Napoleon to Joachim Murat, King of Naples and the Two Sicilies: "If the Pope preaches revolt, we must place him under arrest."

26 Jun – Several neighborhoods in the city of Pressburg (today Bratislava) are destroyed by the bombing ordered by Marshal Davout.
1 Jul – Napoleon leaves Schoenbrunn Palace.

5 Jul – The battle of Wagram begins at Enzersdorf.

6 Jul – Continuation and end of the battle of Wagram. In Rome, Pope Pius VII is arrested and led to Savona.

11 Jul – French victory at Znaim. Napoleon receives an envoy from the Emperor of Austria Francis I carrying a request for an armistice.

12 Jul – Signing of the Armistice of Znaim. Austria agrees to pay a contribution of 196 million Francs.

13 Jul – Napoleon returns to Schoenbrunn.

18 Jul – Letter to Joseph Fouché: "I am sorry that we have arrested the Pope; it's a great folly ... But there is no remedy, what is done is done."

21 Jul – Other areas of Hanover are distributed by Napoleon to generals and high officials of the Empire. Revenues are estimated at 2,323,000 Francs.

30 Jul – The British land near Antwerp.
3 Aug – Declaration of Napoleon to notables of Galicia (central Europe): "The restoration of Poland at this moment is impossible for France ... I do not want war with Russia. "

9 Aug – The fortified town of Antwerp prepares for a siege.

13 Aug – Bombing of Flushing by the English.

14 Aug – Flushing surrenders.

15 Aug – Fortieth birthday of the Emperor. On this occasion, the castles of Chambord, Bruha and Thouars, are erected principalities of Wagram, Eckmühl and Essling and given respectively to marshals Berthier, Davout and Massena.
4 Sep – The English abandon the siege of Antwerp.

10 Sep – 80,000 conscripts are levied. Napoleon to the surveyor-general Pierre Daru: "It seems to me that it was agreed that at 10 Sep Lower Austria have paid twelve million Francs in contributions... I see in your previous statements it has only paid eight million, please let me know why. Upper Austria has yet only paid 200,000 Francs: it's too ridiculous!"

25 Sep – Friedrich Staps, a young Austrian, announces to his parents his departure and his intention to kill Napoleon, as God commands him.
13 Oct – Staps attempts to assassinate Napoleon at Schoenbrunn Palace.

14 Oct – End of the 1809 campaign, with the Peace Treaty of Vienna.

17 Oct – Staps is executed.

26 Oct – Napoleon returns to Fontainebleau.
15 Nov – Installation of Napoleon 1 at the Tuileries.

16 Nov – Cardinal Fesch is appointed to head a committee of bishops.

19 Nov – Appointments: Joseph Fouché becomes Duke of Otranto, Claude-Ambroise Régnier: Duke of Massa, Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny: Duke of Cadore; Michel-Martin Gaudin: Duke of Gaeta, Henri-Jacques-Guillaume Clarke: Duke of Feltre; Hugues-Bernard Maret: Duke of Bassano.

30 Nov – Napoleon informs Empress Josephine they must divorce.
15 Dec – Napoleon and Josephine declare to the imperial family assembled they surrender their marriage.

16 Dec – "The marriage between the Emperor Napoleon and Empress Josephine is dissolved" by an act of the Senate.

17 Dec – From Napoleon to Josephine: "You have shown courage, you must find to sustain you, it must not allow yourself a fatal melancholy, we must find you happy and especially your health care, which is so valuable".

19 Dec – ... again to Josephine: "Savary said that you always crying, this is not good ... I'll come and see you when you tell me that you are reasonable and that your spirit takes over. "

21 Dec – Appointment of thirty-seven chamberlains.

24 Dec – From Napoleon to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Nompère de Champagny, Duke of Cadore: "It is time to conclude the affairs of Germany ... I will give to the Bavarian the country of Salzburg and all the country ceded by Austria on the right bank of the river Inn, and the principality of Bayreuth too, on condition that I reserve areas in the country of Salzburg for a capital of 10 million, and the principality of Bayreuth for 20 million ... Give me a plan for negotiations, after which you'll begin by asking for more, then releasing, but not beyond the terms contained in this letter, which is the minimum of what I can make. "

29 Dec – The Illyrian provinces (Dalmatia) are attached to the French Empire.

April 13–17 - British capture French battleship near Porto Rico

late May - HMS Melpomène vs Danish gunboats

June 25–27 - British and Sicilians vs French near Pozzuoli Bay

October 26 and 31 Cette and ? - Southern France

November 18 - French frigates defeat British East Indiamen near Mauritius (details)

December 13 - French frigates capture HMS Junon (details)



1 Jan – It is decided to erect on the periphery of the Concorde Bride large statues of eight generals dead on the battlefield.

5 Jan – Letter of Marie-Louise of Austria to her father, the Emperor of Austria Francis I: "I read today in the journal papers on Napoleon's divorce from his wife, I must confess, dear father, that I was deeply worried."

6 Jan – France and Sweden conclude an alliance.

9 Jan – The marriage of Napoleon is declared invalid by the Officiality from Paris about the spiritual connection. A nine francs fine is imposed on the Emperor.

11 Jan – The Bishop Committee is asked three series of questions by Napoleon, including: "The bull of excommunication of 10 Jun 1809 being contrary to Christian charity, and independence and the honor of the throne, what to do to ensure that in times of trouble and calamity, the Popes do not wear to such excesses of power?"

17 Jan – From Napoleon to Josephine: "D'Audenarde told me you lack of courage since you're at Malmaison. This place however is full of feelings that can not and should never change, at least on my side ... If you doubt me, you'd be ungrateful."

28 Jan – The Privy Council of the Emperor receives the mission to decide his future wife: a Russian princess, Austrian, Saxon, or even French.
6 Feb – Armand de Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza, announces to Napoleon 1 that Emperor Alexander I of Russia refuses to give him the hand of his sister.

7 Feb – The temporary contract of marriage between Napoleon and Marie-Louise of Austria is signed in Paris.

16 Feb – Ratification of this contract in Vienna.

17 Feb – An organic senatus-consultum provides in Article #7: "The Crown Prince bears the title and received the honors of King of Rome."

20 Feb – Andreas Hofer, the leader of the Tyrolean uprising of 1809, is executed in Mantua .

23 Feb – Napoleon writes his first letter to Marie-Louise.

25 Feb – The House of the future Empress is set up.
5 Mar – Answer from Marie-Louise to Napoleon: "I beg your Imperial Majesty to be convinced that I now consider as an obligation to take care to develop the qualities that will make me better in His person and His reconciling me tenderness".

11 Mar – Blessing of the union of Marie-Louise and Napoleon in the parish church of the Hofburg, in Vienna. The Empress is represented by the Archduke Charles of Austria.

13 Mar – Marie-Louise leaves Vienna.

25 Mar – Announcement of the marriage of six thousand former soldiers throughout France, brides being endowed by the Emperor.

27 Mar – Napoleon leaves Compiègne to join Marie-Louise; they meet in front of the church of Courcelles-sur-Vesle .

30 Mar – The couple leaves Compiegne.
1 Apr – Celebration of civil marriage at Saint-Cloud.

2 Apr – Cardinal Fesch celabrates the religious marriage in the "Salon Carré" of the Louvre VOIR .

27 Apr – Departure for honeymoon: Northern France, Belgium, Normandy.
1 May – The United States Congress vote the "Macon's Bill Number 2", which prohibits importation of goods from Great Britain, France or their colonies, under conditions.

4 May – Birth of Alexander Colonna Walewski, the illegitimate son of Napoleon 1 and Maria Walewska.
1 Jun – Return of newlyweds in Saint-Cloud.

3 Jun – Joseph Fouché, Duke of Otranto, is appointed Governor of Rome and must leave the Police Department.

6 Jun – The Trade and Manufactures Council is created.

10 Jun – The imperial couple is solemnly received at City Hall of Paris. The Phrygian cap, which appeared on its front since 1793, and the inscription on the façade "Unity, indivisibility of the Republic, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death" are erased .

13 Jun – Visit of Napoleon to Josephine.

21 Jun – Marie-Louise and Napoleon visit the Trianon and the Palace of Versailles.

29 Jun – Fouché's appointment as Governor of Rome is canceled. He retires in Aix, in Provence.
1 to 13 Jul – Abdication of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland of Holland; the country is united to France, and Amsterdam becomes the third city of the Empire.
15 Aug – Birthday of the Emperor. The Vendôme Column is inaugurated.

21 Aug – Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte-Corvo, is elected to the throne of Sweden.

25 Aug – The Feast of the Empress is celebrated at St. Cloud.
12 Nov – Napoleon 1 informs French Senate of the pregnancy of the Empress.
31 Dec – The Tsar of Russia Alexander 1 bans the entry of French goods in the Russian Empire; the Franco-Russian alliance is indeed broken.

July 3 - French frigate force defeats British East Indiamen in Mozambique Channel (details)

August 26 Grand Port - French defeat British at Vieux Grand Port, Mauritius

August 31 - British vs French near Toulon



1 Jan – For New Year gifts to Empress Marie-Louise, Napoleon 1 offers her a locket containing her portrait.
1 Feb – James Madison, President of the United States of America, commands the British government to cease controlling american ships.

11 Feb – President Madison prohibits trading with Great-Britain.
11 Mar – Capture of the city of Badajoz by Marshal Soult.

12 Mar – Marshal Ney defeats the English troops commanded by Arthur Wellesley at Redinha.

20 Mar – In the Tuileries Palace, Paris: birth of Napoleon François Charles Joseph Bonaparte, King of Rome, the son of Napoleon 1 and Marie-Louise.
26 Apr – French bishops are summoned to National Council.
7 May – Start of construction of the Palace of the King of Rome on the hill of Chaillot, in Paris.
9 Jun – The King of Rome is christened.

17 Jun – The council opens at Notre-Dame. It is composed of ninety-five prelates, whose forty-two are Italians.
10 Jul – Dissolution of the National Council of Bishops by order of Napoleon I.

27 Jul – A million Francs is affected by decree for embellishments of the city of Rome.
19 Sep – Departure of Napoleon for Holland.

30 Sep – Empress Marie-Louise joins the Emperor at Antwerp.
18 Oct – Creation, in Amsterdam, of the Imperial Order of Reunion; it commemorates the union of Holland and France and replaces the royal order of the Union.
11 Nov – Return of Napoleon 1 and Marie-Louise in Saint-Cloud.
19 Dec – Closure of hundred and twenty thousands conscripts.

March 2 - Spanish defeat Argentines under Juan B. Azopardo at San Nicolás on the Paraná River

March 13 Lissa - British frigates under Hoste defeat larger Franco-Venetian squadron under Dubordieu off Lissa (Vis) in the Adriatic

November 29 - Britain captures French frigate (details)



18 Jan – Order is given to send to Rome two thousand workers for the restoration of ancient monuments.

26 Jan – Meeting of Catalonia to France; it will form four departments.
23 Feb – Concordat of 1801 is broken.

24 Feb – The King Frederick William III of Prussia is forced by Napoleon 1 to supply a contingent of twenty thousand men.
14 Mar – The Emperor of Austria Francis I is ordered to supply thirty thousand men.
9 Apr – Russia and Sweden conclude an alliance.

18 Apr – The Army Corps stationed in Germany is ordered to be ready for war.

22 Apr – At Vilna, Alexander I, Tsar of Russia, takes command of his army.

24 Apr – Russia issues an ultimatum.
1 May – An employee of the French Department of War, convicted of spying for the Russians, is condamned and executed. He provided information on the French armies in Germany.

9 May – Napoleon 1 arrives in Dresden.

21 May – Transfering the Pope Pius VII to Fontainebleau is decided.

29 May – Napoleon leaves Dresden. He will take command of the army.
19 Jun – Puis VII arrives at Fontainebleau as a prisoner.

22 Jun – Napoleon 1 sends a proclamation to the Grand Army.

24 Jun – The Neman river is reached.

28 Jun – Entry of Napoleon in Vilna. He stays in the house occupied by the Tsar Alexander 1 a few days earlier.

29 Jun – Evacuation of Grodno by General Platov.

30 Jun – Jerome Bonaparte enters the city of Grodno. The Russian army retreats on Mostoui.
1 Jul – At Vilna, Napoleon 1 installs the Administrative Commission of Lithuania. It must govern Lithuania and White Russia and load requisitions among the peasants and landowners.

2 Jul – Napoleon orders that the soldiers found guilty of plundering or marauding should be arrested, tried by martial court and shot, if convicted.

8 Jul – Occupation of Minsk by Marshal Davout.

16 Jul – The Grand Army Mares on Vitebsk.

28 Jul – Napoleon enters Vitebsk. He says to Marshal Murat that "the first Russian campaign is over. 1813 will see us in Moscow, 1814 in St. Petersburg. The Russian war is a war of three years."
14 Aug – Passage of the River Dnieper. Fight of Krasnoi.

16 Aug – Battle of Smolensk.

17 Aug – Evacuation of Smolensk by the Russians.

18 Aug – Entry of Napoleon at Smolensk.

25 Aug – Departure from Smolensk.

26 Aug – Letter to Empress Marie-Louise. Napoleon writes: "My vanguard is forty miles from Moscow".

29 Aug – Entry to Wiazma. Appointment of General Kutuzov as commander of Russian troops.
1 Sep – In France, class 1813 (137,000 men) is called in advance.

2 Sep – Napoleon 1 writes to Marie-Louise: "I have been making war for nineteen years, I have given many battles and made many sieges in Europe, Asia, Africa. I'm going to hurry and finish it for seeing you again soon."

5 Sep – French troops attack the Russian avant-garde and reject it to Borodino, a village nearby.

6 Sep – Occupation of Borodino. The portrait of the King of Rome painted by François Gérard is exposed to the tent of the Emperor. Napoleon sends a proclamation to the army: "Soldiers, this is the battle you have so desired. Victory now depends on you, we need it, it will give us plenty of good winter quarters and a speedy return home."

7 Sep – New proclamation: "Soldiers, the day you desired has arrived. The enemy's army who fled is now in front of you. Remember that you are French soldiers". Battle of Borodino.

8 Sep – Kutuzov's troops retreat to Moscow.

13 Sep – Kutuzov decides to evacuate Moscow.

14 Sep – Napoleon enters Moscow. The Russians burn the city.

15 Sep – Installation of Napoleon in the Kremlin. Spread of fire.

16 Sep – Napoleon settles in Petrovsk palace, outside the city in flames.

18 Sep – Wellington besieges Burgos, Spain.

23 Sep – Napoleon sends a letter from Moscow to Marie-Louise: "The weather is beautiful, we shot so many incendiaries that they have ceased."

24 Sep – Napoleon makes to the Tsar confidential offers of peace; the latter takes no action.
5 Oct – Napoleon 1 begins to make arrangements for departure. He orders to evacuate the wounded soldiers.

13 Oct – First snow.

15 Oct – Napoleon signs the "Decree of Moscow" reorganizing the French Comedie.

19 Oct – Napoleon gives the signal for retreat and leaves Moscow, ordering to blow up the Kremlin.

22 Oct – Faced with the heroic resistance of General Dubreton and its 1,800 men, Wellington raises the siege of Burgos.

23 Oct – In Paris, attempted coup of General Malet.

24 Oct – Battle of Maloyaroslavets.

25 Oct – At Ghorodnia, a group of Cossacks just miss to capture Napoleon.

28 Oct – In Paris, Malet and his accomplices are judged by a council of war.

29 Oct – They are shot.

31 Oct – Napoleon arrives in Wiazma. He had entered the city as a winner two months earlier.
3 Nov – Command of the rearguard is given to Marshal Ney.

7 Nov – Napoleon is informed of the conspiracy of Malet.

9 Nov – Napoleon arrives in Smolensk.

16 Nov – The Russians take over Minsk.

19 Nov – Passage of the river Dnieper. In Orscha, Napoleon personally takes care of burning everything he intends avoiding to fall into the hands of the Russians.

21 Nov – Russians take control of bridges at Borisov.

23 Nov – Napoleon orders the construction of bridges over the Berezina river, and the burning of all bodies' Imperial eagles.

24 Nov – Vans and cars will also burn.

27 Nov – The Emperor, custody and artillery cross the Berezina river.

28 Nov – The rest of the army fights against the Russians: it's the battle of the Berezina.
5 Dec – Napoleon 1 entrusts the command of the army to Joachim Murat, and leaves for Warsaw.

10 Dec – Napoleon arrives in Warsaw and leaves it at once.

18 Dec – Napoleon reaches the Tuileries palace, shortly before midnight.

20 Dec – The wreck of the army arrives in Königsberg.

25 Dec – For Christmas, Napoleon grants a major hearing in the Throne Room.

26 Dec – Napoleon hunts in the park of Marly, then attends a military parade at the Carrousel .

28 Dec –Napoleon visits the annual Salon of Painters installed in the Louvre.

29 Dec –Again hunting, in the forests of Versailles.

February 22 - Britain captures French battleship Rivoli (details)

July 12 Lyngør - British sink last Danish frigate

July 19 First Battle of Sacket's Harbor - US turns back British naval attack


1 Jan – Murat leaves Koenigsberg.

11 Jan – A Senatus consultum mobilizes 350,000 men: 100,000 men from classes 1809 to 1812; 150,000 men from class 1813 and 100,000 men from the National Guard.

19 Jan – Napoleon has an interview with Pope Pius VII at Fontainebleau.

25 Jan – A new Concordat is signed, still at Fontainebleau.

26 Jan – Joachim Murat is received by Napoleon and accused by him of having abandoned his army.
1 Feb – The Count of Provence publishes a message to the French people, from his residence of Hartwell, England.

5 Feb – A Senatus consultum organizes regency.

10 Feb – The King of Prussia orderes a mass conscription il his entire kingdom.

18 Feb – Russians enter Warsaw.
1 Mar – The King Frederick William III of Prussia signs a treaty of alliance with Russia.

4 Mar – The Russians enter Berlin.

11 Mar – The Count of Provence reminds his rights to the throne in a manifesto.

17 Mar – The French evacuate Dresden.

18 Mar – King Joseph leaves definitively Madrid.

22 Mar – Russians enter Dresden.

23 Mar – Napoleon tells the Legislature he will take command of the army.

24 Mar – Pope Pius VII retracts and denounces the Concordat of Fontainebleau.

27 Mar – Prussia officially declares war on France. Its ambassador demands his passports.

29 Mar – Russia and Austria sign a secret pact.

30 Mar – Establishment of a Regency Council: Empress Marie-Louise becomes regent and Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès is appointed privy councilor.

31 Mar – Russians enter Leipzig.
3 Apr – A Senatus consultum mobilizes 180,000 additional troops.

15 Apr – Departure of Napoleon 1 for the army.

25 Apr – Arrival of the Emperor in Erfurt. He takes command of troops.
1 May – Death of Marshal Bessières, Duke of Istria.

2 May – Battle of Lützen.

8 May – Napoleon 1 enters the city of Dresden, which has been abandoned by the allied sovereigns.

10 May – The army cross the river Elbe in the presence of Napoleon.

21 May – Battle of Bautzen.

27 May – Allies retreat towards Breslau. In Spain, the French definitively leave Madrid.

29 May – Marshal Davout resumes Hamburg.
4 Jun – An armistice for two months is signed at Pleiswitz.

14 Jun – England and Prussia sign the Treaty of Reichenbach, the first gives the latter a subsidy of 666,660 pounds sterling to continue the war.

15 Jun – Russia, on the other hand, receives 1,333,334 pounds to continue the war.

29 Jun – The command of the Prussian army is entrusted to Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.
10 Aug – Napoleon 1, anticipating the resumption of hostilities, is celebrating his birthday in advance at Dresden. The king and the princes of Saxony attend a parade which gathers forty thousand men.

11 Aug – Denunciation of the armistice. Austrians and Prussians join up.

12 Aug – Austria receives 500,000 pounds and declares war on France.

14 Aug – Blücher initiates the hostilities.

26 Aug – Battle of Dresden.

27 Aug – Battle of Dresden (continued). General Jean Victor Marie Moreau, who had joined the russian ranks, is mortally wounded on the battlefield. Blücher retreats.
3 Sep – Napoleon 1 pursues Blücher.

6 Sep – Marshal Ney is beaten by the Prussians under Bülow at Dennewitz.

23 Sep – Prussians retreat to the river Spree.
8 Oct – Bavaria defects and joins the coalition in the Treaty of Ried.

9 Oct – Call in advance of class 1815 (160,000 men).

16 Oct – Battle of Leipzig.

17 Oct – Battle of Leipzig (continued).

18 Oct – Battle of Leipzig (end). The Saxon army defects.

19 Oct – Retreat of the French army.
2 Nov – French army evacuates Frankfurt and crosses back the river Rhine.

3 Nov – The King of Württemberg joins the allies.

7 Nov – Napoleon leaves Mainz.

9 Nov – He arrives at Saint-Cloud.

12 Nov – The allies come to Dusseldorf.

16 Nov – People uprises against the French in Amsterdam.

22 Nov – The Russians come to Amsterdam.

25 Nov – Defection of the Grand Duke of Baden.

30 Nov – The Prince of Orange lands in Holland.
2 Dec – The allies cross the river Rhine.

9 Dec – Evacuation of Breda by the French.

10 Dec – The British land in Tuscany.

12 Dec – The Treaty of Valençay between France and Ferdinand VII recognizes him as King of Spain.

15 Dec – Armistice is signed between Russia and the King of Denmark.

21 Dec – The Allied armies enter Switzerland.

23 Dec – The Austrians appear in Alsace.

26 Dec – Twenty-three senators and councilors of state are sent in the military divisions; they act as special commissioners to expedite the conscription and national guards.

29 Dec – French Legislature, by 223 votes against 51, votes a report of its committees, condemning "the ambitious activity" of the Emperor, asking him to declare that he will continue the war for independence and territorial integrity of France, and begging to keep the laws that guarantee to French a free exercise of their political rights.

30 Dec – Occupation of Geneva by the Austrians.

31 Dec – Napoleon I adjournes the Legislature and bans the printing of the report voted on 29 Dec.

May 28–29 Second Battle of Sacket's Harbor - US General Jacob Brown turns back British under Sir George Prevost

September 13 Battle of Lake Erie- US squadron under Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British under Robert Heriot Barclay, gaining control of the lake

November 5 - Skirmish between British and French near Toulon (details)


1 Jan – After having crosed the river Rhine, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher Mares towards Nancy. Napoleon apostrophes French deputies, during the reception of New Year's day: "Are you people's representatives? I am, me ... I have a title and you do not ... Return to your departments!".

3 Jan – Allies enter Montbéliard.

4 Jan – In Paris, free corps are created.

7 Jan – The allies enter Dole.

11 Jan – Betrayal of Joachim Murat: he promises, in a treaty with Austria, to provide thirty thousand men to drive the French out of Italy.

13 Jan – Napoleon reviews troops at the Carrousel .

14 Jan – Marshal Ney evacuates Nancy.

16 Jan – Langres is taken by Allies.

17 Jan – Denmark declares war on France.

19 Jan – Allies enter Dijon, Burgundy.

20 Jan – Allies enter Chambery, Savoy.

21 Jan – Napoleon orders to bring back the Pope Pius VII to Italy.

23 Jan – Presentation of the King of Rome to the officers of the National Guard.

24 Jan – Joseph Bonaparte is appointed Lieutenant General of the Emperor. Empress Marie-Louise becomes regent.

25 Jan – Fall of Lleida, French last place in Spain. Napoleon joins the army.

26 Jan – Marshal Berthier is ordered to distribute to the army two to three hundred thousand bottles of wine and distilled spirits taken in Vitry.

27 Jan – Napoleon defeats the vanguard of Blücher in Saint-Dizier.

29 Jan – The "Marie-Louise" (young soldiers battalions) beat Blücher at Brienne.
3 Feb – A conference betwen French and Allies opens at Châtillon-sur-Seine.

4 Feb – Blücher resumes the offensive and enters La Fere-Champenoise. Marshal Macdonald retreats towards Chateau-Thierry.

6 Feb – The French retreat to Nogent. Napoleon plans the evacuation of Paris by the government.

7 Feb – Napoleon gets informed that the allies demand that France founds its limits prior to the Revolution.

8 Feb – He refuses these conditions.

9 Feb – The Conference of Chatillon is suspended.

12 Feb – The Duke of Angoulême (nephew of Louis XVIII) addresses a proclamation to the French from Saint-Jean de Luz, Basque country.

17 Feb – Conference resumes at Chatillon.

18 Feb – French victory at Montereau.

19 Feb – Eliza, sister of Napoleon, states cutting ties with the French Empire.

22 Feb – The Allies met in Troyes to hold a council of war. They decide to retire and offer Napoleon an armistice.

24 Feb – Napoleon enters Troyes, Champagne.

25 Feb – Negotiations begin at Lusigny, for an armistice. However discussions at Chatillon continue.

28 Feb – End of conference of Lusigny; no results.
1 Mar – The Allies proclaim themselves associated for twenty years against France: it is the Treaty of Chaumont.

4 Mar – All French people are called to arms.

9 Mar – Battle of Laon.

10 Mar – Battle of Laon (end). Napoleon retreats towards Soissons. The Baron of Vitrolles, as emissary of Talleyrand, arrives at the headquarters of the Allies.

12 Mar – The Duke of Angouleme enters Bordeaux. Louis XVIII is proclaimed King.

19 Mar – The negotiations of Chatillon are permanently discontinued. Arrival of the Count of Artois (Louis XVIII's younger brother) in Nancy.

20 Mar – Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube. The imperial army must retire behind the river Aube. The bridge at Arcis is shot.

23 Mar – The Allies cross the river Aube and head to Paris.

28 Mar – The Tsar Alexander I looks down at the capital from the hills over the river Seine.

29 Mar – Empress Marie-Louise and her son leave Paris for Rome.

30 Mar – Start of the battle for Paris at 6 AM. Marshal Marmont offers to negotiate a cease-fire at 4 PM.

31 Mar – Signature of the capitulation of Paris at 2 AM. The Allies enter Paris at 11 AM. Napoleon is at Fontainebleau.
1 Apr – The French Senate appoints a provisional government headed by Talleyrand.

2 Apr – The Senate declares "Napoleon Bonaparte and his family deprived of the throne, the French people and army freed from their oath of fidelity".

3 Apr – The French Legislature votes the forfeiture, too.

4 Apr – Napoleon at Fontainebleau signs a form of conditional abdication, which preserves the rights of his son and the Empress Regent.

5 Apr – He reviews the debris of his guard.

6 Apr – Council with the Marshals. The Senate "freely" calls Louis-Stanislas-Xavier (Louis XVIII) to the throne. Napoleon renounces for himself and his family to the thrones of France and Italy.

8 Apr – The provisional government declares invalid all acts of Napoleon since his disqualification by the Senate.

10 Apr – A ceremony of cleansing takes place in Paris, Place de la Concorde, the place where had been guillotined King Louis XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette.

11 Apr – The allies offer to Napoleon the sovereignty of the island of Elba, in the Mediterranean Sea.

12 Apr – Attempted suicide of Napoleon, late at night.

13 Apr – Napoleon accepts the offer of Allies.

14 Apr – The Count d'Artois receives "the lieutenant general of the kingdom" from the Senate.

15 Apr – He is solemnly received by the Senate.

19 Apr – Allied commissioners responsible to accompany Napoleon to Elba arrive at Fontainebleau.

20 Apr – Farewell of the Emperor to his guard.

24 Apr – Louis XVIII lands at Calais, North France.

28 Apr – At Saint-Raphael, Napoleon embarks on the British frigate The Undaunted.
3 May – Napoleon arrives at the island of Elba. King Louis XVIII enters Paris.

24 May – Return of Pope Pius VII in Rome. – 29 May – Josephine dies at Malmaison.

30 May – First Treaty of Paris: France is reduced to its 1792 borders.

31 May – Pauline Bonaparte joins her brother in the island of Elba.
1 Jun – Proclamation of peace in Paris.

4 Jun – Louis XVIII gives the Charter. In Porto-Ferrajo, the capital of the island of Elba, a ball is given aboard a British ship for the anniversary of King George, Napoleon Bonaparte attending.
3 Aug – Arrival of Napoleon's mother at the island of Elba.

15 Aug – Celebration of the anniversary of Napoleon in all his kingdom.
1 Sep – Arrival of Maria Walewska and her son to the island of Elba.
3 Nov – Opening of the Congress of Vienna, a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich.

March 11 - Argentines under William Brown attack Spanish under Romerate (details)

May 14, 16 and 17 - Argentines under William Brown defeat Spanish (details)

September 11 Plattsburgh (Lake Champlain) - US squadron under Thomas Macdonough defeats British under George Downie


3 Jan – A secret treaty is signed between France, England and Austria, intending to impede the Prussian and Russian ambitions in Germany ...
12 Feb – Hugues-Bernard Maret, Duke of Bassano, sends to Napoleon 1 an emissary, baron Pierre-Alexandre-Edouard Fleury de Chaboulon, to advise him to hasten his return to France.

26 Feb – The brig Inconstant, accompanied by a flotilla of four three-masted and two feluccas, departs at nine o'clock from the island of Elba, Napoleon aboard.
1 Mar – Napoleon 1 lands in Golfe-Juan , between Cannes and Antibes, French riviera.

5 Mar – At noon, Napoleon arrives in Sisteron, southern French Alpes. At eleven o'clock, he comes to the city of Gap. French royal government is informed of the landing of Napoleon.

6 Mar – King Louis XVIII chairs a cabinet meeting to deal with the return of Napoleon. The King asks for the convocation of Parliament. A royal decree declares Napoleon Bonaparte traitor and rebel. All commanders of the armed forces will "run down", bringing him before a court martial and shooting him on the simple fact of his identity.

7 Mar – The news of the departure of Napoleon from Elba arrives in Vienna. –

10 Mar – Napoleon enters Lyon.

11 Mar – Napoleon reviews his troops on the Place Bellecour, Lyon. He takes a decree that dissolves the chambers of Louis XVIII, and another one that directs all emigrants returned after 1 Jan 1814 to immediately get out of the Empire. He leaves Lyon at noon. The same day, the Congress of Vienna says: "Napoleon Bonaparte has placed himself outside the civil and social relations and as an enemy and disturber of the world, he has engaged in public prosecution."

18 Mar – The French Chamber of Deputies declares that the war against Napoleon Bonaparte is "national".

19 Mar – King Louis XVIII asks the Army to remain faithful, while promising to forgive and forget "lost children". He leaves the Tuileries at midnight. In the night, Napoleon arrives in Montereau.

20 Mar – Napoleon arrives at Fontainebleau at 4 AM. At 9 AM he reaches the courtyard of the Tuileries Palace and sets up a government.

21 Mar – Lazare Carnot is made Minister of Interior and Count of the Empire.

23 Mar – Louis XVIII publishes from Lille, North France, an order to all French commanding to disobey an order of mobilization from Napoleon Bonaparte.

24 Mar – The imperial power suppresses the direction of the library and censorship.

25 Mar – Legislation passed by the revolutionary assemblies against the Bourbons are updated.

26 Mar – The National Guard of Paris will have the Emperor as commander.

27 Mar – The Council of State annulles the forfeiture of Napoleon.

30 Mar – The Imperial University, suppressed by Louis XVIII on 17 Feb, is reinstated.
17 Apr – Napoleon 1 moves to the Elysee Palace.

20 Apr – The Parisians are informed, by firing a hundred guns, that the tricolor flag fleets again on all the cities of France.

22 Apr – Publication of the Acte additionel (supplementary to the constitutions of the Empire).

25 Apr – The Allies are committed not to lay down their arms until they have killed Napoleon.
2 May – Louis XVIII, in a manifesto published in Ghent, Belgium, calls the French people to chase out the usurper.

12 May – The Allies confirm their decision of Apr 25th.

15 May – Royalist rebellion in the Vendee, West France.

26 May – The Tsar Alexander I of Russia, theEmperor Francis I of Austria and King Frederick William III of Prussia start leading the "liberation army".
1 Jun – Assembly of the Champ-de-May: Emperor Napoleon I swears-in to new constitutions of the Empire.

2 Jun – The British House of Commons vote a budget of 3,169,622 pounds for war costs in 1815.

9 Jun – The final treaty, which sets the state of Europe, is signed at the Congress of Vienna.

12 Jun – Napoleon leaves Paris to join the army.

14 Jun – Proclamation to his troops.

15 Jun – The French army crosses the river Sambre.

16 Jun – The enemy suffers heavy losses in the plains of Fleurus, near Ligny, but is not destroyed.

18 Jun – Battle of Mont-Saint-Jean (a.k.a. Waterloo).

21 Jun – Napoleon returns to the Elysee palace, Paris.

22 Jun – Abdication in favor of Napoleon II. Joseph Fouché forms a provisional government.

24 Jun – Napoleon leaves Paris. The White Terror begins in the South of France.

25 Jun – King Louis XVIII returns to France.
3 Jul – Capitulation of Paris.

7 Jul – Ministry Talleyrand-Fouché is established by theCount of Artois .

8 Jul – King Louis XVIII returns to Paris.

15 Jul – Napoleon embarks at Rochefort aboard the HMS Bellerophon, commanded by Captain Frederick Maitland, which sails to England.
7 Aug – Napoleon is transferred aboard the HMS Northumberland, which sails to the island of St. Helena, located in the middle of the South Atlantic.
16 Oct – St. Helena.




March 4 - Greeks vs Turks north-west of Zakynthos

June 5, 6 and 8 - Greeks defeat Turks

August 10-c. 13 - Skirmishes

October 1 - Skirmish



March 4

May 31

June 18–19 - Greek fireships under Constantine Kanaris blow up the flagship of Ottoman admiral Kara Ali Pasha



May 4 - Brazilians under Cochrane vs Portuguese (details)

July 2, 4 and 6 - Brazilians under Cochrane vs Portuguese

July 24 Lake Maracaibo - Republican naval forces of Venezuela vs Spanish Empire fleet in Lake Maracaibo that includes siege of Defensive Castles in Zapara, San Fernando and San Carlos islands

September 27 - Greeks vs Turks west of Lemnos

October 23 - Greeks vs Turks near Pondikonisi



August 11, 12, 13, 16, 17 and c. 26 - Various skirmishes between Greeks and Turks/Egyptians/Tunisians

September 1 - First Budrum - Greeks vs Turks and Egyptians

September 9 - Second Budrum

September 22 - Greeks vs Egyptians near Nikaria

September 29

November 12 and 13 - Greeks vs Turks and Egyptians near Spinalonga



April 29

May 26

June 1 - Greeks defeat Turks between Euboea and Andros

June 14 and 15 - Greeks defeat Turks and Egyptians near Suda Bay

June 28 and 29 - Greeks vs Turks and Egyptians south of Cerigo

August 3 - Greeks defeat Turks near Missolonghi

November 14 - Greeks under Miaoulis vs Turks/Egyptians/Algerines/Tripolitans near Navarin

November 25, 26, 29, 30 and December 6 and 7 - Greeks vs Turks (and allies?) near Missolonghi



January 22 and 28 - Greeks vs Turks

February 9 - Argentina vs Brazil

April 15

Punta Collares

June 11 Los Pozos (Quilmes) - 11 Argentine vessels under William Brown defeat 31 Brazilian vessels near Buenos Aires

July 27 and 28 - Greeks vs Turks near Samos

September 10 and 11 - Greeks vs Turks near Mitylene

October 7 (6?) - Greeks vs Turks in Aegean Sea (?)



February 9 Juncal - 15 Argentines ships under Brown defeat 17 Brazilians under Pereira

February 24 - Argentines under Brown vs Brazilians near Quilmes

April 6 and 7 Monte Santiago - Brazilian fleet defeat Argentine navy under William Brown south of Buenos Aires

September 29 - "Greeks" (Frank Abney Hastings) vs Turks in Salona Bay

October 20 Navarino - British/French/Russian squadrons, under Admirals Codrington, de Rigny, and Geiden, destroy Turkish/Egyptian/Tunisian fleet of Tahir Pasha off south-west Greece



January 31 - British and French defeat Greek pirates at Grambusa

June 9 (May 26 OS) - Russians defeat Turks near Braila (Russo-Turkish War)


5 Oct – In St. Helena, twenty-eight witnesses, whose Generals Bertrand and Gourgaud, Mamluk Ali (Louis-Etienne de Saint-Denis) and Louis-Joseph Marand, former chief valet de chambre of the Emperor, attend the exhumation of Napoleon.

15 Dec – Les Invalides receive the casket containing the ashes of Napoleon.


Home Page |  What's New |  Most Wanted |  Surnames |  Photos |  Histories |  Documents |  Cemeteries |  Places |  Dates |  Reports |  Sources