Wikipedia.org - List of naval battles during the French Revolutionary War
France and Napoleon
20 May -
Minorca - French under la Galissonnière defeat British under John
Chesma Two Russian squadrons, commanded by
Grigory Spiridov and
John Elphinstone, a British advisor, combined under the overall
Count Alexei Orlov, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Fleet //Russian
fleet defeats and burns Turkish fleet off western Turkey (Mandalzade
Hüsameddin Pasha Ottaan Fleet)
5 September 5
Chesapeake Bay - French under de Grasse drive off British under
14 Jan – Napoleon is
appointed as Warrant Officer-Major of a battalion of the National Guard
1 Apr – Napoleon Bonaparte becomes second lieutenant-colonel of
the same battalion.
10 Jul– Napoleon is reincoporated into the army, with a captain's rank.
10 Oct – Napoleon returns to Ajaccio, with orders to resume his
command in Corsica.
25 Jul – Napoleon is sent to Avignon to dislodge the federalists
from Marseilles. He seizes Villeneuve and himself directs the cannons
bombarding Avignon, the city of the Popes.
16 Sep – He is sent to command the artillery in front of
28 Oct – Promotion of Napoleon Bonaparte to the rank of
17 Dec – Napoleon
Bonaparte is injured by a bayonet during the assault of fort Mulgrave.
19 Dec – He penetrates into Toulon at 7 AM.
22 Dec – Promotion, to the rank of Brigade General.
26 Dec – The
defence of Marseilles and the Provence coast is bequeathed to him.
6 Nov - French capture
HMS Alexander (details)
Nov - Short, inconclusive British-French battle
24 Mar – Napoleon gets the command of the artillery of
the army of Italy.
21 May – Napoleon draws up the
plan for the Italy campaign.In Colmars, Basses-Alpes
27 Jul – Arrest of Maximilien Robespierre, who is executed the day
6 Aug – Napoleon is suspended from his duties,
arrested and charged with complicity with the Robespierre brothers.
20 Aug – He gets his
30 Aug –... and his duties as well.
January 22 and 25 - French
attack British convoy (details)
April 23 - British defeat
French frigates (details)
The Glorious First of June - British fleet defeats French fleet in
North Atlantic but French grain convoy makes it through to Brest
June 8 - French vs British
August 23 - British defeat
French near Brest
October 22 - French vs
British near Mauritius
29 Mar – Napoleon gets the command of the artillery of the army of the West.
13 Jun – Napoleon refuses an appointment as General of
infantry and gets
15 Sep – His name is struck off the list of generals in
5 Oct – Paul-François de Barras, Chief General of the Army of
the Interior, appoints him upon the recommandation of Lazare Carnot
commander of the forces earmarked for repressing insurrection from the
royalist sections in Paris.
10 Oct – Barras praises general Buonaparte in front of the Convention. He manages to get
his appointment confirmed.
16 Oct – Napoleon
Bonaparte is promoted as Division General.
26 Oct – He succeeds
Barras as commander of the army of the Interior.
3 Nov – Assumption of duties in the Executive Directory.
Directors chosen by the Council of the Ancients are: Paul-François de
Barras, Jean-François Reubell (a.k.a. Rewbell), Louis-Marie La
Révellière-Lépeaux, Etienne-François Le Tourneur and Lazare Carnot.
March 13 and 14 - British
under Hotham vs French under Martin (details)
June 8 and 9 - British vs
French near Belle Isle
Groix - British under Hood defeat French under Villaret-Joyeuse off
July 13 - British vs French (details)
October 7 - British vs French
2 Mar – General
Napoleon Bonaparte gets the command in chief of the army of Italy.
2 Apr – Napoleon Bonaparte reaches Menton:
the Campaign in Italy
12 Apr – Battle of
Montenotte – Battle of
Millesimo – Entry in
Cosseria – Victory of
21 Apr – Battle of
Mondovi. Napoleon Bonaparte enters the city in the evening.
28 Apr – In Cherasco,
Bonaparte signs an armistice with the envoys of the King of Sardinia
without reporting it to the Directory.
9 May – An armistice is
signed with the duke of Parma.
10 May – Victory of Lodi.
Bonaparte is appointed as corporal by his soldiers.
15 May – Bonaparte
enters Milan. In Paris, the envoys of the King of Sardinia sign a peace
treaty, whose clauses are more severe than the clauses of the armistice
(loss of Savoy and Nice in particular).
17 May – The duke of
Modena gets an armistice.
24 May – Insurrection of
the Milanese population.
25 May – Napoleon
Bonaparte represses the movement. The village of Binasco is burnt.
Proclamation to the inhabitants of Lombardy to to threaten them with
26 May – The
municipality of Pavia is shot down for having refused to surrender the
city, which is left to be looted.
31 May – Bonaparte
personally commands the repression against the farmers of Tortona.
1 Jun – Jean Lannes sets fire to the village of Arquata.
3 Jun – Entry of the
French in Verona.
6 Jun – An armistice is
signed with the Kingdom of Naples.
12 Jun – Entry of the
French army in the Papal States.
23 Jun – Signing of an
armistice in Bologna with the Holy See.
27 Jun – Livorno is
6 Jul – Lugo is
recaptured and punished.
26 Jul – Offensive of
Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser, the new Austrian chief general.
29 Jul – The Austrians
recapture Brescia and Mantua; they march over Castiglione.
3 Aug – Victory of André Masséna at Lonato.– of
Charles Pierre François Augereau at Castiglione – Victory of Roveredo – Victory of
14-15 Sep – Battle
of San Giorgio di Mantova.
17 Sep – Creation
of the Cispadane Republic, comprising Modena, Reggio, Bologna and
9 Oct – Genoa
accepts to shut its ports to the British and pay a tribute, thereby
getting a treaty with France. – Naples also
undertakes to pay.
1 Nov – New Austrian offensive.
6 Nov – Masséna
fails in Bassano. and
Bonaparte in Caldiero.
17 Nov – Victory of
Arcole, after three days of battle.
6 Dec – The city of
Carrara tries to revolt, repression is immediate.
27 Dec – The
patriots of Bergamo and Ferrara come to an understanding and form a
Oct British evacuate Corsica
11 Jan – Livorno is
14 Jan – Victory of
16 Jan – Battle of
2 Feb – The
Austrian General Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser surrenders at Mantua .
9 Feb – Ancona is
19 Feb – The peace
treaty with the Pope is signed at Tolentino.
16 Mar – Battle of
19 Mar – Capture of
23 Mar – Entry in
29 Mar – Entry in
9 Apr – Bonaparte
threatens the Doge of Venice with war.
13 Apr – Prolongation
of the suspension of arms up to Apr 10th.
17 Apr – The French of
the Veronese are massacred.
18 Apr – The
preliminaries for peace are signed at Leoben.
15 May – Venice is
occupied. The Doge flees and is replaced by a provisional municipality.
16 May – Signing of a
peace treaty with Venice, against heavy contributions.
16 Aug – Bonaparte in
his turn advises the Directory on the annexation of Egypt, in order to
22 Aug – He goes to
Udino for the peace negotiations with Austria.
24 Aug – At Padova,
Bonaparte announces that the city will be reunited with the Cisalpine
25 Aug – Bonaparte
demands a contribution from the city of Treviso.
31 Aug – Beginning of
peace negotiations with Austria.
4 Sep – The directorial coup d'état of the 18 fructidor takes
place in Paris.
6 Sep – Napoleon
Bonaparte learns of this event from Talleyrand.
10 Sep – Bonaparte
orders that the anniversary of the foundation of the Republic (Sep
22nd) be celebrated in the army.
12 Sep – A new
letter to Talleyrand.
13 Sep – Bonaparte
informs Talleyrand about the projects that he is making as regards
15 Sep – Arrest
and execution of bandits in Milan whose chief had named himself
Buonaparte, and others had taken on the names of Masséna, Augereau and
19 Sep – Napoleon
Bonaparte demands of Talleyrand that Sieyès comes to Italy in order to
provide Genoa and the Cisalpine Republic with a constitution.
22 Sep – Bonaparte
addresses a proclamation to the army, on the occasion of the function to
celebrate the anniversary of the Republic.
23 Sep – Bonaparte
congratulates François de Neufchâteau and Merlin de Douai on their entry
to the Directory.
6 Oct – Letter from Napoleon Bonaparte to the general treasurer
of the army, Haller, soliciting funds.
7 Oct – Bonaparte
announces to Talleyrand that he is highly desirous of reaching at a
10 Oct – He sends an
account to the Directory of the peace conditions that he has agreed to.
17 Oct – The peace
treaty is signed at Campo-Formio.
18 Oct – Bonaparte proposes to Talleyrand that the government must devote its activity
towards the destruction of England.
26 Oct – The
Campo-Formio treaty is ratified by the Directory. The chief command of
the Army of England is entrusted to Napoleon Bonaparte.
27 Oct – Bonaparte is designated as the plenipotentiary of the French Republic in view of
the Rastadt Congress.
7 Nov – Napoleon Bonaparte reorganizes the Ionian Islands
which become the departments of Corcyre (Corfu), Ithaca and the Aegean
9 Nov – He orders
Haller to put funds into the cash fund for the England expedition.
11 Nov – He addresses a proclamation to the Cisalpine people on the occasion of his
17 Nov – Bonaparte leaves for Rastadt.
20 Nov – At Chambéry, he issues and order imposing a considerable contribution to
the departments of Mont-Blanc, Isère, Drôme, Ain, the Hautes-Alpes and
21 Nov – In Geneva,
Bonaparte promises the authorities that he will abide by the
independence of their republic.
26 Nov – Arrival at
Rastadt (or Rastatt).
28 Nov – The
congress opens. Stormy encounter between Bonaparte and Fersen, delegate
from Sweden, who is reproached by Bonaparte for earlier relations with
1 Dec – Napoleon Bonaparte leaves Rastadt after signing an
agreement for the removal of troops.
3 Dec – He is
received by a Masonic Lodge at Nancy.
5 Dec – Arrival at
6 Dec – Fisrt
interview with Talleyrand.
10 Dec – Napoleon
Bonaparte is solemnly received at the Palais du Luxembourg.
25 Dec – He is
elected to the Institute, to fill in Lazare Carnot's seat, which had
been declared vacant.
Cape St Vincent - British under Jervis defeat Spanish near Gibraltar
March 26 - Austrian vessels, supported by Venetian battleship, fight
off small French attack (details)
May 16 - Danish vessels get the better of Tripolitans near Tripoli,
Camperdown (Kamperduin) - British fleet under Admiral Duncan defeats
4 Jan – Napoleon
Bonaparte is received at the Institute.
12 Jan – He makes a
presentation to the Directory on an invasion plan of England.
21 Jan – Bonaparte attends the commemoration of the execution of King Louis XVI.
14 Feb – Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord reads a report
on the issue of Egypt to the Directory.
15 Feb – The French
army under Louis-Alexandre Berthier enters Rome.
20 Feb – Napoleon
Bonaparte is back in Paris.
23 Feb – A report
by Bonaparte rejects the idea of making a descent in England. His advice
is to conclude peace with it.
5 Mar – The Directory decides on the conquest of Egypt, under
General Napoleon Bonaparte.
12 Apr – Napoleon Bonaparte is appointed as the
Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the Orient.
4 May – Napoleon Bonaparte leaves Paris for Toulon.
19 May – The fleet
transporting the Army of the Orient (37,000 men) gets underway for
10 Jun – Stopover in front of Malta.
12 Jun – Capitulation
of La Valette, the capital of the island.
13 Jun – End of the
14 Jun – Destruction of
the Order of Saint-Jean of Jerusalem. Two thousand barbaric slaves are
17 Jun – Napoleon
Bonaparte informs the Directory of the capture of Malta.
30 Jun – Bonaparte
writes to the pasha of Egypt for inviting him to join forces with him.
1 Jul – Napoleon Bonaparte lands in Egypt, near Alexandria.
2 Jul – Bonaparte
enters Alexandria. Proclamation to the people of Egypt asking them not
to support the Mamelukes.
13 Jul – First victory,
21 Jul – Victory of
22 Jul – Bonaparte
writes to the notables of Cairo demanding their submission.
25 Jul – He enters
30 Jul – Bonaparte
orders the disarmament of the inhabitants of Alexandria, on pain of
31 Jul – Bonaparte decides to disarm the inhabitants of Cairo.
1 -2 Aug – Naval defeat of Abukir (Battle of the Nile).
8 Aug – Napoleon
Bonaparte embarks on the pursuit of Ibrahim.
16 Aug – Marriage of
Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte and Désirée Clary, ex-fiancee of Napoleon
22 Aug – Creation by
Bonaparte of the Institute of Egypt.
25 Aug – Bonaparte gets a village whose inhabitants assassinated sixteen Frenchmen looted
29 Aug – First issue
of the Courrier de l'Égypte, founded by Napoleon Bonaparte in Cairo.
4 Sep – Napoleon Bonaparte imposes the tricoloured flag and
6 Sep – Seid
Mohammed el-Koraïm, a high dignitary of Cairo, is shot down for having
betrayed the Republic after having sworn loyalty to it. His head is
paraded on the streets.
16 Sep – Sale of the confiscated diamonds, gold coins and precious fabrics.
22 Sep – Celebration of the foundation of the French Republic.
25 Sep – Bonaparte demands funds from the appropriator of funds Poussielgue.
26 Sep – Bonaparte orders General Dugua to disarm the population, arrest the suspects and
27 Sep – He enjoins the governor of Cairo to get two spies beheaded.
6 Oct – Napoleon Bonaparte demands more severity of General
9 Oct – Fresh
admonishment to Poussielgue.
21 Oct – Revolt of
the population of Cairo: death of General Dominique-Martin Dupuy.
22 Oct – Abolition
of the Grand Divan of Cairo.
23 Oct – To Berthier:
Bonaparte orders the execution of all the prisoners who were caught with
weapons in their hands.
28 Oct – Bonaparte writes to Louis Charles Antoine Desaix to inform him that everything is
perfectly calm and quiet and in order.
30 Oct – Bonaparte inaugurates a concert-garden in Cairo. He makes the acquaintance of
Pauline Fourès, the wife of one of his officers.
18 Dec – Pauline Fourès's husband returns to France carrying
dispatches to the Directory.
19 Dec – The monks
of Mount Sinai are exempt from all duties and tributes and get total
freedom of worship. This is so, due to respect for Moses and the Jewish
21 Dec –
Reinstatement of the Grand Divan of Cairo.
The Nile (Aboukir Bay) - British under Nelson defeat moored French
fleet under Brueys in Egypt
October 12 - British defeat
French invasion force off western Ireland (details)
October 28 - Minor British vs
9 Jan – Creation of
a camel regiment.
11 Jan – Joachim Murat gets the order to take hold of a village and kill all the men that
he will not be able to capture.
15 Jan – Napoleon
Bonaparte once again urges Poussielgue to find funds.
18 Jan – He orders
General Verdier to execute the Sheik of a village under the pretext of
having hidden Mamelukes and canons.
10 Feb – Napoleon Bonaparte and 13,000 men leave Cairo for
25 Feb – Entry in
3 Mar – Arrival in front of Jaffa.
7 Mar – Capture of
Jaffa followed by two days of looting and massacres. Execution of the
4,000 men of the garrison.
9 Mar – Napoleon
Bonaparte writes to the sheiks of Jerusalem to ask them to choose
between peace and war.
11 Mar – Bonaparte's
visit to the plague victims of Jaffa.
12 Mar – French
Directory declares war to Austria.
19 Mar – Beginning of
the siege of Acre.
16 Apr – Battle of Mount Tabor, near the eponymous mountain in Galilea, main battle exploit of the Egyptian campaign.
21 Apr – Joséphine de
Beauharnais acquires Malmaison.
17 May – Lifting of the siege of Acre...
24 May –. ..and return
26 May – Paul-François
de Barras demands the return of Napoleon Bonaparte.
27 May – Second visit to
the plague victims.
28 May – Bonaparte orders Jean-Baptiste Kléber to get the harvest burnt, the villages
looted and the cattle requisitioned.
14 Jun – Return to Cairo.
19 Jun – General
Charles Dugua receives the order to shoot down all the Moghrebins,
Mekkins, etc., who had held arms against the French.
20 Jul – Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord resigns.
25 Jul – Battle of
Abukir (or Aboukir).
17 Aug – Napoleon Bonaparte declares to the Divan of Cairo that
he is leaving for a tour in the Delta.
22 Aug – He informs
General Menou that he is leaving that very night for France.
1 Oct – Napoleon Bonaparte lands in Ajaccio , Corsica.
6 Oct – He leaves
9 Oct – He lands in
16 Oct – Arrival at
17 Oct – Reception
by the Directory.
23 Oct – Meeting with Jean Victor Marie Moreau and Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès. Beginning of
the preparations of the coup d'État. Lucien Bonaparte is elected to the
presidency of the Council of Five Hundred.
1 Nov – Decisive interview with Sieyès, at Lucien's place.
7 Nov – Napoleon
Bonaparte has dinner with Talleyrand.
8 Nov – Cambacérès
has Bonaparte to dinner.
9 Nov – Coup d'État
of the 18 Brumaire.
10 Nov – At
Saint-Cloud, grenadiers under the command of Joachim Murat Mar into
the Orangerie and disperse the Council of Five Hundred. A group of
members of the Council enacts that there is no Directory any longer.
Sixty-one deputies of the Council deposed of their mandate. An executive
Consular Commission, made up of Bonaparte, Sieyès and Roger-Ducos, is
named. Bonaparte's proclamation to the country.
11 Nov – First meeting of the three consuls.
13 Nov – Repeal of
the law allowing taking hostages among the family of emigrant and the
15 Nov – Napoleon
Bonaparte settles in at the Palais du Petit Luxembourg.
16 Nov – The
Minister of the Police gets the play Les Mariniers de Saint-Cloud
removed from the programme.
19 Nov – The
Minister of the Police decides that he will no longer tolerate anything
in shows which could divide people's minds.
20 Nov – The
Treasury has only 167,000 Francs left in cash.
22 Nov – Talleyrand
becomes the Minister of External Affairs once again.
28 Nov – Creation
of the Consular guard.
29 Nov – The
deportation of sworn priests is cancelled.
1 Dec – Songs on the events related to the Brumaire and
harmful with respect to the national representation are banned.
2 Dec – A raid
dispatches three hundred prostitute to the prison or the hospital.
4 Dec – Pierre Daunou, a former moderate conventional, is given the charge of drawing
up a draft constitution.
5 Dec – Organization of a Tolerance festival in the former church
12 Dec – Napoleon
Bonaparte gets Daunou's draft constitution read to him, and gets it
14 Dec – Signing of
an armistice with the Vendeens.
15 Dec – The
Constitution of the year VIII is proclaimed.
18 Dec – Napoleon
Bonaparte asks Talleyrand to impose tax on the dealers of Genoa.
22 Dec –
Installation of the Council of State. Sieyès receives a domain worth
480,000 Francs, by way of a national reward.
24 Dec –
Bonaparte becomes the first consul.
25 Dec – Bonaparte proclaims his intention of rendering the Republic "dear to its citizens,
respectable to foreigners, formidable to enemies".
27 Dec –
Installation of the Senate.
28 Dec – Amnesty is
granted to the Vendeen insurgents who will surrender their arms within
ten days. Opening of churches on Sundays is authorized. Oath is no
longer demanded of clergymen.
30 Dec – An order is given to render funeral honours to Pope Pius VI, who died four months
earlier ( Aug 29th, 1799) in Valence, Drôme.
1799 September 3, 4, 5 and 10 - Minor light skirmishes between
British and Spanish
9 Jan – The
municipalities lose their right to appoint police commissioners.
17 Jan – An order abolishes sixty out of the seventy-three Parisian political newspapers.
The creation of new titles is banned.
18 Jan – The Banque
de France is created. Vendeans surrender to General Brune.
21 Jan – Royalist demonstrations on the occasion of the death anniversary of Louis XVI.
25 Jan – Creation of
a reserve army of 60,000 men, placed under the command of the First
7 Feb – Napoleon Bonaparte praises George Washington, who died
two months ago. For ten days, all the flags of the Republic will display
9 Feb – Ceremony at
the Hôtel des Invalides honoring the memory of George Washington.
13 Feb – Publication of the statutes of the Banque de France (Bank of France).
14 Feb – The Chouan
chief Georges Cadoudal lays down his arms.
15 Feb – The
journalists lose the right to print anything related to land and sea
17 Feb – A new
administrative organization of France is adopted.
18 Feb – The
Constitution of the year VIII is adopted by plebiscite: 3,011,007 yes,
19 Feb – Napoleon
Bonaparte sets up house at the Palais des Tuileries.
20 Feb – The Count
of Provence (future Louis XVIII) requests Bonaparte in writing to leave
him his place.
2 Mar – Appointment of the prefects of ninety-eight departments.
3 Mar – Closing of
the list of emigrants.
8 Mar – Creation of the police prefecture of Paris.
14 Mar – At Venice,
cardinal Barnaba Chiaramonti is elected Pope Pius VII.
18 Mar – Law on the
new organization of courts.
5 Apr – Governmental authorization becomes necessary for staging
a play in the theatre.
21 Apr – André Masséna
enters Genoa with his army.
27 Apr – Napoleon
Bonaparte orders Charles Augereau to bring the Batavian government to
6 May – Napoleon Bonaparte leaves Paris: it is the beginning of the
second campaign in Italy.
9 May – Bonaparte
14 May – The French army
approaches the slopes of Mount Saint-Bernard.
20 May – Bonaparte crosses Saint-Bernard .
24 May – From Aoste: in
a letter to the Consuls, Bonaparte announces that he hopes to be back in
Paris within fifteen days.
26 May – Battle of La
30 May – Joachim Murat
2 Jun – Entry in Milan.
3 Jun – Reinstatement
of the Cisalpine Republic.
4 Jun – Masséna must
capitulate in Genoa.
9 Jun – Battle of
14 Jun – Battle of
Marengo; at the moment of victory Louis Charles Antoine Desaix is killed
by a musket ball . The same day, in Egypt, Jean-Baptiste Kleber is
15 Jun – In Alessandria,
Italy, signing of a convention between the French and Austrian commands.
The strongholds of Piedmont and Lombardia, the cities of Genoa, Savona
and Urbino are handed over to the French; the Austrians retreat beyond
21 Jun – The French
army enters Turin.
23 Jun – Louis-Gabriel
Suchet occupies Genoa. Bonaparte orders the collection of a war
contribution across the length and breadth of the Cisalpine Republic, to
be paid by the well-known supporters of Austria.
2 Jul – Return of Napoleon Bonaparte to Paris.
22 Jul – Bonaparte writes to Masséna: "To set an example, loot and burn the first village
of Piedmont which will revolt".
26 Jul – Traders and
individual people once again become free to be idle on Sundays.
12 Aug – Setting in place of a commission in charge of drawing
up the Civil Code; members are: Bigot de Préameneu, Tronchet, Portalis
28 Aug – Napoleon
Bonaparte visits Jean-Jacques Rousseau's room in Ermenonville, near
5 Sep – Malta falls into the hands of the English.
7 Sep – Napoleon
Bonaparte sends a demurrer to the Count of Provence.
23 Sep – Bonaparte lays the foundation stone of the monument for Desaix and Kléber.
27 Sep – A Ministry of the Treasury is appointed, by a split of the Ministry of
30 Sep – Signing
of the Convention of Mortefontaine between France and the United States
of America, which settles the hostilities that had erupted during the
1 Oct – The third Treaty of San Ildefonso is secretly
concluded between Spain and France, by which Spain returns Louisiana to
3 Oct – Metge, the
author of a pamphlet who was inciting people for assassinating Napoleon
Bonaparte, is arrested.
10 Oct – The
sculptor Giuseppe Ceracchi is arrested at the Opera while he was getting
ready to assassinate Bonaparte.
20 Oct – Forty-eight
thousand people's names are struck off the emigrants’ list.
5 Nov – Monsignor Giuseppe Spina, the Pope's representative,
reaches Paris in order to negotiate the Concordat.
8 Nov – Chevalier,
a chemist suspected of making an infernal machine, is arrested.
3 Dec – Jean Victor Marie Moreau crushes the Austrians at
24 Dec – Napoleon
Bonaparte escapes unscathed from an attack on rue Saint-Nicaise . There
are 22 dead and 56 injured.
25 Dec – Moreau signs the armistice of Steyr, near Vienna, with the Archduke Charles.
1800 August 4 - French attack British convoy (details)
5 Jan – A hundred
and thirty Jacobins, alleged accomplices of the attack staged on rue
Saint-Nicaise, are deported to the Seychelles without judgment.
7 Jan – Beginning of
the trial of the authors of the attack. Fifty-two citizens are put under
surveillance; they are forbidden to reside in the Seine and the
9 Jan – Several
death sentences are passed: Demerville, Arena, Ceracchi and
11 Jan – Execution
15 Jan – In Treviso,
an armistice is signed between French and Austrian armies.
18 Jan – Carbon,
royalist agent and one of the main instigators of the attack of rue
Saint-Nicaise, is arrested.
20 Jan – Execution
of Metge and two of his friends.
28 Jan – Arrest of the royalist Saint-Réjant.
30 Jan – Execution
of Ceracchi, Arena, Dermerville and Topino-Lebrun.
6 Feb – In Foligno, an armistice is signed between Joachim
Murat and the King of Naples. Napoleon Bonaparte limits the number of
foundings that the government will support to thirty thousand.
Cancellation of assistance to single mothers.
7 Feb – Seditious
gatherings, rebellions, assassinations and robberies become liable to be
reported to special courts which have neither jury nor appeal or
reversal of judgment.
9 Feb – Peace between France and Austria is signed at Lunéville.
27 Feb – Napoleon
Bonaparte writes to the Tsar Paul I for denouncing the arrogance and
insolence of the British.
4 Mar – Beginning of Thomas Jefferson's presidency in the new
capital of the United States of America: Washington.
6 Mar – Negotiations
start with Russia.
8 Mar – The four
departments of the left bank of the Rhine are reunited with France.
14 Mar – Resignation
of William Pitt "the Younger"; Henry Addington succeeds him as Prime
Minister of the United Kingdom.
18 Mar – In Florence ,
Tuscany: peace is signed between France and the Kingdom of Naples.
21 Mar – Reuniting of
the Duchy of Parma with France. The Treaty of Aranjuez is signed on
between France and Spain; it confirms the terms presented in the secret
treaty of San Ildefonso.
23 Mar – Paul I is
assassinated; his son Alexander I succeeds him.
28 Mar – Establishment
of a commission in charge of drafting the criminal code.
29 Mar – Signing of a
treaty with the Kingdom of Naples; its ports are forbidden to the
1 Apr – In Paris: opening of the trial of Carbon and
2 Apr – A British
fleet under Admiral Hyde Parker bombards Copenhagen; Horatio Nelson
"turns a blind eye" in order not to see Parker's signal to cease fire.
21 Apr – Carbon and
Saint-Réjant are guillotined.
8 May – At Saint-Domingue (Santo-Domingo), Toussaint Louverture
promulgates a constitution.
12 May – In Paris:
preliminary conference on the Concordat with Monsignore Giuseppe Spina.
13 May – Breaking up of
the Cisalpine Republic into twelve departments.
20 May – Beginning of
the "War of the Oranges" between Spain and Portugal.
28 May – Peace is signed
between England and Denmark.
3 Jun – Napoleon and Joséphine entertain the sovereigns of
Etrurian Kingdom at Malmaison.
6 Jun – Spain and
Portugal sign the Treaty of Badajoz that ends the "War of the Oranges".
17 Jun – Peace is
signed between England and Russia.
21 Jun – Arrival of the
cardinal-Secretary of State Ercole Consalvi in Paris; he is vested with
full powers for signing the Concordat.
22 Jun – Creation of sixty mercantile brokers with the Paris Stock Exchange.
27 Jun – The French
army leaves Cairo.
12 Jul – Joseph Bonaparte is given charge of negotiating and
signing a Concordat.
15 Jul – The Concordat
19 Jul – The play of
the water fountains restarts in Versailles.
23 Jul – Louis Ripault,
librarian of the First Consul, submits an analysis of the contents of
the newspapers to him every day. Beginning of the discussion of the
Civil Code in the Council of State.
31 Jul – Organization
of the national gendarmerie.
3 Aug – Establishment of a commission in charge of drafting
the commercial code.
5 Aug – Horatio
Nelson attacks on Boulogne but fails.
6 Aug – Journalists
are no longer supposed to speak of religion and its ministers.
10 Aug –
Establishment of a commission in charge of drafting the rural code.
15 Aug – New failure
of attack on Boulogne by Nelson.
24 Aug – The elector
of Bavaria accepts the treaty of Lunéville. He renounces his possessions
of the left bank of the Rhine.
31 Aug – In
Alexandria, Egypt: General Jacques François de Menou de Boussay
2 Sep – Evacuation from Egypt.
6 Sep –
Institution of the general inspectors of the public exchequer.
7 Sep – Napoleon
Bonaparte sets up house in Saint-Cloud.
8 Sep – Ratification of the concordat by the First consul.
16 Sep – Creation
of a director-general and four customs administrators.
18 Sep – Exhibition of national industry, held at the Louvre.
26 Sep – At the
Council of State, the First Consul personally insists that obedience
must be specified among women's duties.
29 Sep – Signing
of a peace treaty between the French Republic and the Kingdom of
1 Oct – Preliminaries for peace are signed between England
and France, represented by Louis Otto.
4 Oct – The
theophilanthropists lose their right to use churches.
8 Oct – Conclusion
of a peace treaty between the French Republic and the Emperor of Russia.
24 Oct – General
Charles Leclerc is appointed commander of the expedition to re-establish
control over Saint-Domingue.
28 Oct – Dissolution
of the Swiss Diet (Tagsatzung).
29 Oct – The Théâtre
Feydeau becomes the National Theatre of the Comic Opera.
4 Nov – The four bronze horses brought from Venice to Paris
are placed upon the pillars of the consular palace gate.
7 Nov – Napoleon
Bonaparte, at the meeting of the Institute proposes to award Alessandro
Volta a gold medal in recognition of his experiences on galvanism.
9 Nov – Second Anniversary of 18 Brumaire and proclamation of Napoleon Bonaparte: "Whichever
way the eyes are doing, opens a long perspective of hope and happiness...
12 Nov – A Governor,
Géraud Duroc, and four prefects of the palace of the Tuileries are
established by order. The same issue rules ceremonials for the reception
of ambassadors and other official occasions.
30 Nov – Election
of Abbot Grégoire (Louis Grégoire) in the Senate. He is the leader of
the Constitutional Church.
3 Dec – Start of Anglo-French negotiations in Amiens,
6 Dec – Resumption
of work at the Tribunat.
14 Dec – Departure
of an expedition to Saint-Domingue (Hispaniola) under the command of
17 Dec – Renewal of the Treaty with the regency of Algiers; the Dey continues to receive
tribute paid by France.
29 Dec – A law
decides that death penalty will continue to be applied.
Copenhagen - British under Nelson destroy moored Danish ships off
København to prevent France taking them over
Algeciras - French defeat initial British assault, British
counter-attack and defeat Franco-Spanish force.
4 Jan – One can read a
report from the police headquarters: "We secretly debit today that the
First Consul having asked the Minister of the Treasury four million for
the trip to Lyon, the latter replied that it was not possible to give,
that extra 1,600,000 francs sufficed to Louis XIV for such a journey; he
soon felt the impropriety of his process, and sent his resignation to
the government, which has refused".
8 Jan – Departure from
Napoleon Bonaparte to Lyons. There should chair the Consulta of the
26 Jan – Election of
Bonaparte as President of the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana).
31 Jan – Back to Paris.
6 Feb – The General Leclerc arrives in Saint-Domingue with orders
to suppress the revolt of Toussaint Louverture.
20 Feb – Following
reports of police headquarters: "The city is now full of masks is
particularly in the Rue St. Honoré and those adjacent they are doing in
droves. It engages the year at this kind of entertainment with a kind of
24 Feb – "Today looks
like a holiday, we usually deal with pleasure."
25 Feb – "In the midst
of pleasures more noisy, peace has continued to reign yesterday in Paris
and the suburbs."
28 Feb – "The masquerade
has continued to roam the streets, squares, docks and bridges, until
nightfall ... The pleasures have not been quieter in the suburbs than
within the city. The working class gives himself completely..."
1 Mar – Following reports of police headquarters: "The day passed as
the previous pleasure in feasting and dancing ... it is impossible to
describe how far we pushed the year madness masquerades and disguises."
8 Mar – The Directorate
General of Public Instruction replaces the Service of Science and Arts.
17 Mar – Eleven archbishops
and bishops are removed from the list of émigrés by order of the First
18 Mar – Two hundred and
forty members of the Legislature and eighty members of the Tribunes are
deprived Senatus consultum the right to stand for election. Among them
are major opposition leaders: Pierre Daunou, Maximin Isnard, Benjamin
19 Mar – Napoleon Bonaparte
visits the National Library, located at the Louvre. "He was particularly
attached, says the Gazette de France, to examine the medals, including
those of Alexander and Caesar set appeared more special attention. He
also looked forward to the arms of Henri IV, which he wielded the sword,
he even measured".
24 Mar – Establishment of a
committee responsible for drafting the Code of Civil Procedure.
25 Mar – Peace is signed in
Amiens with England.
27 Mar – Bonaparte shows
for the first time in civilian clothes. He wears the dress of
embroidered state councilors, with white stockings and shoes with
4 Apr – The legislative body listens to a speech by Jean-Etienne
Portalis. This tends to prove that religion adopted and recognized by
the State is necessary and that the Catholic religion in this regard
7 Apr – The Tribunes adopt
the Concordat by a majority of 78 votes against 7.
8 Apr – The Concordat is
adopted by the legislative body by 228 votes against 21. It will come
into effect by Act of 18 Germinal, year X.
9 Apr – Cardinal Giovanni
Battista Caprara, papal legate, is received by the First Consul. 15 000
francs are allocated to each newly appointed archbishop "for expenses".
Bishops receive 10 000 francs only.
10 Apr – Monseigneur Jean-Baptiste de Belloy, 92 years old, is
installed at Notre-Dame as archbishop of Paris.
11 Apr – A special council
chaired by First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte meets at Malmaison to prepare
an act of amnesty for immigrants.
14 Apr – François-René de
Chateaubriand publishes "The Spirit of Christianity" and dedicates it to
the First Consul.
18 Apr – Easter Sunday. The
consuls attend the celebration of the first religious holiday of the
Consulate, at Notre-Dame-de-Paris. Official proclamation of the
Concordat throughout France.
20 Apr – Bonaparte orders
the conversion of his bathroom into a chapel, "putting over the ice
table, or a tapestry."
26 Apr – Amnesty is granted
by Senatus consultum to any individual not yet removed from the list of
emigrants who returns to France later than 23 Sep 1802 and
who is willing to swear the new government.
1 May – A law establishes the system of public education.
4 May – Declaration of
Napoleon Bonaparte to the Council of State: "Never has the military
government will take in France, unless the nation is stupefied by fifty
years of ignorance ... It is not as general as I govern, but because the
nation believes that I have the qualities unique to civilian government."
6 May – The Tribunes proposes
"that is given to General Bonaparte, First Consul, a striking pledge of
7 May – General Delmas,
Colonel Fournier and squadron leader Donnadieu stopped. They are accused
of preparing the assassination of Bonaparte.
8 May – Senator Augin de
Lespinasse proposes to appoint Bonaparte consul for life. A Senatus
consultum declaring elected First Consul "for ten Years immediately
following ten years for which he was named" brings together 61 votes
9 May – Napoleon Bonaparte says in a message of thanks sent to the
Senate: "The vote of the people invested me the highest office. I do not
think myself sure of his confidence, if the act is not sanctioned by a
vote." – 10 May – A consular decree announces the holding of a
plebiscite. The question: "Will Napoleon Bonaparte be consul for life?".
14 May – Amnesty is granted
for crimes of desertion committed on French territory by noncommissioned
officers and soldiers of the French troops.
18 May – A law provides for
the levying of sixty thousand conscripts.
19 May – The Legion of Honor
is established by a law which collects 166 votes against 110.
20 May – The slave trade is
reestablished by law and upheld slavery in French colonies "in
accordance with laws and regulations prior to 1789".
28 May – The Prefect of
Police informs Bonaparte a conspiracy has been organized against him by
30 May – Circular of the
Minister of Police to the prefects of departments: "I think, citizen
Prefect, it's my duty to warn you against all rumors with which it seeks
to disturb and make fools in departments. Paris is quiet and can not be
shaken;, no conspiracy has threatened days of the First Consul; he can
have nothing to fear except excessive work and sleepless nights which he
dedicates to interests of the Republic."
7 Jun – In Santo Domingo, Toussaint Louverture is arrested.
24 Jun – In Rennes, General
Simon, Chief of Staff of Bernadotte at the army of the West, is arrested
with some of his officers. They are accused of plotting to raise arms
against the tyrant Bonaparte.
2 Jul – The construction of the Quai d'Orsay is decided by consular
8 Jul – In accordance with
Article 16 of the Concordat, the Pope appoints five French cardinals.
Among them, Monsignor Joseph Fesch, Napoleon's uncle.
14 Jul – Proclamation of the
First Consul to the French people: "After thirteen years of work, the
14th of Jul is more precious for you, more majestic for posterity. You
have overcome all obstacles, and your destiny is fulfilled."
27 Jul – Napoleon Bonaparte to the Dey of Algiers: "If you do not
suppress the license of your ministers who dare insult my agents, and of
your ships who dare insult my flag, I'll land 80 000 men on your side
and I'll destroy your regency."
2 Aug – Napoleon Bonaparte is proclaimed First Consul for life by
4 Aug – The Constitution
of year VIII is overhauled by Senatus consultum. The prefects are
invited by a ministerial circular to celebrate the anniversary of the
birth of the First Consul.
15 Aug – The First
Consul's birthday is celebrated with great pomp.
20 Aug – On the occasion
of a representation of Andromaque by Jean Racine, the First Consul,
accompanied by Madame Bonaparte, takes possession of the box specially
fixed up for him at the French Theater.
21 Aug – Bonaparte chairs
the Senate for the first time.
27 Aug – Incorporation of
the island of Elba into France.
31 Aug – The Dey of
Algiers accepts Bonaparte's claims.
11 Sep – Piedmont is united to France by Senatus consultum.
13 Sep – At
Saint-Domingue, uprising of black slaves.
15 Sep – Removing of
Joseph Fouché's Department of General Police.
20 Sep – Installation
of Napoleon Bonaparte at the palace of Saint-Cloud.
22 Sep – Bonaparte
visits the Exhibition of National Industry in the Louvre and the Salon
of Painting and Sculpture.
30 Sep – First Consul
requires Swiss cantons to accept his mediation about conflict between
the Federalists and the Unitarians.
4 Oct – The National Guard, "daughter" of the French Revolution,
becomes Municipal Guard.
19 Nov – The Directorate General of Museums is created.
22 Nov – Four "ladies"
(Mesdames de Luçay, de Talhouët, de Lauriston et de Rémusatt) are
designated for service with Josephine.
5 Dec – The British ambassador presents his credentials to the
First Consul in solemn audience. For this occasion Napoleon Bonaparte
features, at the hilt of his sword, a diamond known as The Regent.
7 Dec – Employees of
direct contributions receive an uniform and a sword.
10 Dec – A decree
provides that Latin and Mathematics are the main lessons taught in high
23 Dec – Magistracy find
back its former costume.
24 Dec – Solemn
installation of the first President of the Court, Jean-Mathieu Seguier.
He is a returned emigrant after Brumaire, the son of a famous Attorney
General of the former regime.
27 Dec – Installation of
Chief of Justice Claude-Ambroise Régnier, preceded by a mass celebrated
in the great hall of the Law Courts by the Archbishop of Paris.
8 Jan – The salaries of
clergy cease to be seized.
23 Jan – Napoleon
Bonaparte leaves the palace of St. Cloud to the Tuileries, left four
26 Jan – Lucien Bonaparte
becomes a member of the Institute, appointed by his brother.
19 Feb – Switzerland concludes with France a treaty of defensive
20 Feb – Napoleon
Bonaparte says: "The Government says with justifiable pride: only
England can not now fight against France."
26 Feb – By consular
decree, each French cardinal receives 45,000 Francs for his installation
costs. An additional annual salary of 30,000 Francs is also granted.
28 Feb – The First
Consul Napoleon Bonaparte inspects, on horseback, works of the Ourcq
10 Mar – Regulation of the practice of Medicine.
13 Mar – Napoleon Bonaparte
asks the Minister of Marine how to do the most damage possible to the
English trade in the event of a maritime war.
16 Mar – Organization of
18 Mar – King George III of
England calls for credits in Parliamen. He has to face French
preparations for war.
28 Mar – The new French
currency will display the head of the First Consul. The value of the
Franc is fixed to five grams of silver.
1 Apr – The names of saints and personages of ancient history
become, from that date, the only accepted ones as given names for Public
8 Apr – Departmental
Coucils get the right to vote a salary increase for archbishops and
bishops in their dioceses, "if circumstances so require."
9 Apr – Establishment of
the sixteen first auditors at the State Council. Their salary is two
thousand Francs a year.
11 Apr – Establishment of
Pharmacy schools (there are six).
12 Apr – A law regulates
the operation of factories and workshops. It prohibits coalitions of
workers and establishes the protection of trademarks.
13 Apr – Napoleon Bonaparte
returns to settle in Saint-Cloud.
14 Apr – The Bank of France
obtains the exclusive privilege of issuing banknotes, for fifteen years.
16 Apr – The levying of
sixty thousand conscripts is included in legislation.
30 Apr – Sale of Louisiana
to the United States of America. Price: 80 million Francs, of which 20
million are deducted as compensation to Americans affected by maritime
3 May – Resumption of Pierre Corneille's Polyeucte at the French
Theater, following an express order of First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte.
7 May – The wages of Cardinal
Joseph Fesch, Ambassador of France to Rome, are determined by his nephew
to 150,000 Francs plus 100,000 Francs for expenses.
12 May – Treaty of Amiens is
broken. The British Ambassador leaves Paris.
13 May – The British
government expresses its willingness to keep Malta for ten years. He
claims also that the French evacuate Holland.
16 May – Rupture between
France and England.
17 May – An embargo is
imposed by the British government on the French ships and the
Netherlands' ones. England seizes more than 1,200 vessels and 200
million of goods.
20 May – The First Consul
announces, in a message to the Senate, the Legislative body and the
Tribunes, the war with England.
22 May – Order is given to
arrest all Englishmen being in France.
23 May – Declaration of war
28 May – One hundred
twenty-eight companies of Coast Guard gunners are created.
30 May – Soldiers on leave
are ordered to join without delay their regiments.
10 Jun – The regulation of high-schools is established by decree.
13 Jun – From that day, in
the countries gathered to France, all public acts will be written in
14 Jun – French army is
organized for the proposed invasion of Britain, and is named "Armée
20 Jun – The introduction
into the French ports of food and goods arriving from British colonies
or England is prohibited.
22 Jun – The success of the
war against England is the subject of public prayers.
24 Jun – First Consul begins
a tour of inspection in Northern France and Belgium.
19 Aug – The offer of mediation from Russia faces the refusal of
21 Aug – Georges Cadoudal
and some other Chouans, led by an English ship, clandestinely land at
Biville cliff, in Normandy.
31 Aug – The students are
exempted from conscription.
10 Sep – The extraordinary works of bridges and causeways, digging
and repair of canals, draining of swamps receive an allocation of
fifteen million Francs.
20 Sep – From First
Consul to Jean-Antoine Chaptal, Minister of Interior: "I am, citizen
Minister, dissatisfied with the city of Paris. The budget of this city
for the year XI is not yet finalized while year is over [the year XI
ended on 23rd Sep 1803]. My intention is that these delays cease."
24 Sep – Napoleon
Bonaparte, wearing National Guard uniform, attends a concert for the
Feast of the founding of the Republic.
27 Sep – By consular
decree: "To ensure freedom of the press, no publisher can sell a book
before it is presented to a board of review."
1 Oct – (8 Vendemiaire Year XII) Napoleon Bonaparte decides that
"there will be erected, in Paris, at the center of the Place Vendome, a
column like the one erected in Rome in honor of Trajan ... surmounted by
a pedestal supporting the statue of Charlemagne".
5 Oct – A company of
interpreters is created. It is intended to be used in the army for the
invasion of Britain.
11 Oct – Bonaparte
himself writes an instruction for the crews of landing craft.
12 Oct – Eleven military
depots are created in order to detain conscripts convicted of
14 Oct – The bust of Jean
Bart is installed in the City Hall of Dunkirk.
15 Oct – Expulsion of
Madame de Staël.
23 Oct – The First Consul
gives audience to Dr. Guillotin who introduces him, on behalf of the
Central Committee of vaccinia, a report on this new mode of inoculation.
3 Nov – Napoleon Bonaparte visits the fleet set up in Boulogne
and inspects the troops.
18 Nov – Back in St.
21 Nov – Installing the
Tuileries for the winter season.
23 Nov – The British
prisoners of war must be locked at Verdun if they are civilians, in the
citadels of Charlemont and Valenciennes if they are soldiers or sailors.
24 Nov – Bonaparte to
Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord: "I am pressed for money: 16
million Francs are due on 1 Vendemiaire [24 Sep]. I would like
the Minister of the Treasury to extricate 16 million Francs of letters
of exchange on Spanish Treasury... Letters would be accepted or would
not... If they were not, it would be a natural subject of dispute with
Spain, whether on the contrary, they are, they will be settled within
eight days, and from that moment we have the money arrived in Paris
before the end of Frimaire [22 Dec]. "
25 Nov – Forty students
from the military school of Fontainebleau over the age of eighteen shall
be appointed second lieutenants in advance. Sixty students from
Saint-Cyr Prytaneum with the age of sixteen shall be appointed
29 Nov – Bonaparte to
minister Chaptal: "I desire a song for the invasion of England ... I
know it has been presented several comedies of fact, it should make a
choice for them to play in different theaters of Paris, and especially
to the camps of Boulogne, Bruges and other places where the army stays."
1 Dec – Establishment of Workers' booklet.
2 Dec – Order is given
to condemn to death the leaders of rebel conscripts department of
Maine-et-Loire, Vendee and Deux-Sevres.
12 Dec – Napoleon
Bonaparte asks for information on political opinions, abilities, wealth
and probity of candidates for Senate and Legislature, "so I can
intervene, says he, whenever it is presented people with bad principles
and little regarded."
20 Dec – The Legislative
body loses the right to appoint its chairman.
24 Dec – The Academy of
Arts of New York elects Bonaparte as a member.
25 Dec – Charles Nodier
is interrogated at police headquarters and taken to the Force jailhouse.
He is the author of the libel La Napoleone and had written to the First
Consul to denounce himself. – 30 Dec – Bonaparte visits again
Boulogne, inspecting the fleet and visiting new harbours Ambleteuse and
May 23, 24 and 27 - 4 ships take on
Tripolitan gunboat force (details)
May 31, June 1 - Adams vs Tripolitan gunboats
- Duckworth (British) defeats Rochambeau (French) near Santo Domingo
6 Jan – Napoleon
Bonaparte returns to Paris.
15 Jan – Appointment of
Joachim Murat as Governor of Paris: it's a monarchic title that
Bonaparte exhumes for the benefit of his brother-in-law.
16 Jan – The First Consul
reports on the situation of the Republic, inside and outside, in a
message to the Senate. Clandestine landing of thirty-five royalists sent
by England to organize the assassination of Bonaparte.
24 Jan – Formal
announcement of the King of England: he will never abandon the cause of
15 Feb – Arrest of General Jean Victor Marie Moreau.
17 Feb – Report of the Chief Justice on a conspiracy involving Jean
Victor Marie Moreau, Jean-Charles Pichegru and Georges Cadoudal.
19 Feb – Monsignor
Bernier, bishop of Orleans, orders prayers for the preservation of life
of the First Consul.
25 Feb – Napoleon Bonaparte removes the jury for two years in the
trial of attacks against his person and against the security of the
28 Feb – Arrest of
Jean-Charles Pichegru which is led to the Temple jailhouse.
9 Mar – Georges Cadoudal is arrested at his turn.
10 Mar – The three consuls, Joseph Fouché, Charles-Maurice de
Talleyrand-Perigord and the High Judge Claude-Ambroise Régnier, meeting
in Council of Government, decide the kidnapping of the Duke of Enghien.
The same day, Bonaparte orders three hundred dragoons to cross the Rhine
river, to surround the town of Ettenheim and to remove the Duke of
Enghien and his followers.
15 Mar – The Duke of
Enghien is arrested.
20 Mar – The Duke of Enghien arrives at Vincennes at five o'clock. Six
hours later, he appears before a military commission.
21 Mar – At three o'clock,
the Duke of Enghien is executed by firing squad. Napoleon Bonaparte says:
"The Duke of Enghien conspired as another, we had to treat him like any
other. I am the man of the state, I am the French Revolution and I argue".
A law dated the same day promulgates the "French Civil Code".
27 Mar – The Senate asks
Bonaparte to restore its authority in families. It's Fouché who
introduced that motion.
6 Apr – Jean-Charles Pichegru is found strangled in his prison.
13 Apr – The Privy Council chooses for General Bonaparte the title of
23 Apr – Jean-François
Curée, a Tribunat member, suggests that Napoleon Bonaparte is proclaimed
Emperor of the French and the imperial dignity became hereditary in his
30 Apr – Start of the
discussion of the motion Curée at the Tribunes.
3 May – Motion is unanimously adopted, minus one vote.
10 May – Bonaparte's wish is
to be crowned by the Pope.
16 May – On behalf of the
State Council, Jean-Etienne Portalis brings to the Senate a draft
Senatus consultum who proclaims Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor of the
18 May – The
Senatus-consultum is approved by the Senate unanimously minus three
19 May – Fourteen Empire
marshals are appointed: Berthier, Murat, Moncey, Jourdan, Masséna,
Augereau, Bernadotte, Soult, Brune, Lannes, Mortier, Ney, Davoust,
Bessières, plus four marshals-Senators: Kellermann, Lefebvre, Perignon,
20 May – The establishment of
the Empire is proclaimed in the major squares of Paris by a procession
which travels the streets.
21 May – The Monitor
publishes a paper protocol: the ministers and marshals will be treated
in Monseigneur, the great dignitaries of Serene Highness.
22 May – Napoleon says to a
deputation of Tribunate: "I like to owe everything to the people, this
feeling only makes me dear new honors that I am dressed."
26 May – The Italian Consulta
gives orders to erect a monument to the glory of the Emperor. The same
day, it tells the Minister of Marine: "The Italian Republic owes to me
the price for twelve boats and two frigates. I estimate the price is
28 May – Georges Cadoudal,
his accomplices and Jean-Victor Marie Moreau have their trial opened
before a Criminal court of the Department of Seine without judging jury.
6 Jun – Publication of a formal protest of the Count of Provence
against the appointment of Napoleon.
7 Jun – The functions of the
special courts are extended.
10 Jun – Georges Cadoudal is sentenced to death, with nineteen of his
accomplices (including the Duke Armand de Polignac); two years in prison
11 Jun – The sentencing to
death of the Duke of Polignac, a former comrade of Napoleon Bonaparte at
the military school, is commuted by him in custody until the peace.
12 Jun – Establishment of a monopoly on funeral benefit of the Church.
21 Jun – Seven accomplices of Cadoudal, sentenced to death, get their
grace of Napoleon.
25 Jun – Cadoudal and eleven of his accomplices are executed.
26 Jun – A decree orders
that the new coins will now legendary "Emperor Napoleon".
3 Jul – Permission is granted to comedians of the Comédie-Française
to take the title of the Emperor's ordinary Comedians.
8 Jul – The Emperor leaves
officially Saint-Cloud to Paris to receive new letters of credence of
9 Jul – In Paris, Napoleon
attends a military parade, the first one since his elevation to the
10 Jul – The Ministry of
Religious Affairs is created. Joseph Fouché becomes Minister of General
13 Jul – The Holy Sacrament,
when passing on the public way, will now receive military honors.
14 Jul – Napoleon goes to
the Invalides to distribute, seated on a throne, the first crosses of
the Legion of Honor. He is preceded by the Eagles of the French Empire,
ministers, marshals, and dignitaries of the imperial house.
17 Jul – Napoleon tells the
Minister of the Treasury: "I wish that diamonds and pearls, that are the
public treasury, should be installed in different decorations for the
18 Jul – The Emperor begins
a great inspection tour, from Boulogne to Treves, through Calais,
Dunkirk, Ostend, Arras, Mons, Aachen, Cologne and Mainz.
12 Oct – Napoleon 1 is back in Saint-Cloud.
16 Oct – At the Mount
Genevra pass, Hautes-Alpes, is laid the foundation stone of an obelisk
in honor of the Emperor.
26 Oct – Establishment of
the list of those attending the coronation of Napoleon.
2 Nov – Pope Pius VII leaves Rome and begins the journey that
should take him to Paris to crown Napoleon.
9 Nov – The Grand Orient
de France, the largest Masonic organization in France and the oldest in
Continental Europe, elects Lucien Bonaparte as Grand-Master.
18 Nov – The Imperial
Pages, the sons of generals and senior officials, appear for the first
22 Nov – The offices of
charity have in Paris 103,454 needy rescued.
25 Nov – Napoleon 1 goes
before the Pope arrived at Fontainebleau.
28 Nov – The Emperor and
the Pope share a carriage to get to Paris.
29 Nov – Napoleon and Josephine receive from Cardinal Joseph Fesch
the nuptial blessing in the chapel of the Tuileries, at midnight.
30 Nov – The Grand
Bodies of the state come to pay homage to the Pope.
2 Dec – Napoleon 1 is crowned at Notre-Dame.
3 Dec – Report of the
Prefecture of Police: "Today the Stock Exchange was in no way more
interesting than yesterday: few people, few business and languid
arrangements consistently negative".
5 Dec – Eagles are formally
distributed at the Champ de Mars, in the presence of the Emperor.
Jean-Nicolas Faure, a student, rushes through the crowd toward the
imperial throne, crying: "Liberty or Death." He is arrested.
6 Dec – Napoleon 1
receives, in the throne room at the Tuileries Palace, prefects and
presidents of the electoral colleges of hundred eight Departments of the
Empire. The Grand Bodies of state, ministers and marshals are present.
8 Dec – More than seven
thousand delegates from the army, navy and National Guard are received
in the Grand Gallery of the Louvre.
9 Dec – The student
Faure is interned at Charenton "to be treated as insane until his
11 Dec – Presentation of
the Institute of tributes to Napoleon 1.
12 Dec – Order of
Minister of Police is given to search and seize an engraving on the
Coronation which is sold, under the counter, at the Palace of Tribunes.
It reads thus: "Pius is stain".
13 Dec – Police arrests
a heretofore magistrate Beugnet of Pommeraie: he broadcasts an illegal
pamphlet entitled "Funeral Oration of the Duke of Enghien".
14 Dec – A police report
indicates an anagram circulating in Paris. "Napoleon, empereur des
Français (Napoleon, Emperor of the French)" becomes: "Ce fol empire ne
durera pas son an (This crazy empire will not last a year)."
16 Dec – Napoleon is
solemnly received at City Hall.
17 Dec – An Eagle takes
place in the coat of arms of Napoleon.
20 Dec – Appointment of
Jacques-Louis David as the first painter of the Emperor. He is ordered
to execute four paintings on the coronation.
22 Dec – Celebration of
a Mass by the Pope in Saint-Sulpice.
25 Dec – Increase the
price of bread, a penny per pound.
26 Dec – Celebration of
a Mass by Pope Pius VII at Notre-Dame-de-Paris, Napoleon 1 attending.
27 Dec – Napoleon says:
"By giving me the crown, my people have committed to make every effort
that circumstances would require him to retain the brilliance that is
necessary for its prosperity and its glory like mine" .
30 Dec – Each of the
prelates who attended the coronation of Napoleon I receives a snuff box
decorated with a portrait of the Emperor, estimated at twelve thousand
Francs each. The officiating, canons and priests, share a sum of fifty
Pulo Aura - French attack British convoy
August 3, 7, 23/24 and 28 and September 2–5 raids on Tripoli (details)
1 Jan – Mass in the
chapel of the Tuileries in the presence of the Emperor. Then New Year
wishes from the main bodies of the State, marshals, ministers,
dignitaries and princes.
4 Jan – A Denis,
supposedly a lawyer, is arrested, "accused of holding about the most
indecent cons S. M. the Emperor and have pushed up the fury advise a
woman to take his own life."
5 Jan – Police report: "We
celebrated Kings in almost all families, the people and the workers were
common in taverns."
6 Jan – Ball in the Opera
Hall, organized by the marshals for Empress Josephine. It will cost
twenty thousand Francs to each of them.
7 Jan – At the Sstock
Exchange: "The cases were languishing, and the five percent appeared
tilted downward, it appears no takers".
14 Jan – A statue of
Napoleon 1 is inaugurated in the Chamber of Legislature.
17 Jan – Sixty thousand
conscripts are removed.
19 Jan – Increase of the
price of the bag determined by the coal merchants: it now will be worth
7 Francs instead of 6.25 Francs.
20 Jan – Those who have
applied the new prices are agreed "as instigators and leaders of
coalition". Cancellation of the increase.
21 Jan – Celebrating of
the anniversary of the death of Louis XVI at the former Duke of
Narbonne's; assistance in mourning, is large.
26 Jan – It is decided
that the state seal will bear the effigy of the Emperor sat on his
throne, the crown on the head. The other side will show the Imperial
Eagle based on the lightning.
28 Jan – A novel by
Jerome Pigott-Lebrun, containing "licentious jokes about the ceremonies
of the Christian religion" is forbidden.
30 Jan – Creation of the
Grand Cordon of the Legion of Honor.
2 Feb – Appointment of Forty-eight large columns of the Legion of
Honor. There are the brothers of the Emperor, marshals, ministers (including
Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord and Joseph Fouché), Cardinals
Fesch (archbishop of Lyon), Cambacérès (Archbishop of Rouen) and Belloy
(archbishop of Paris).
4 Feb – A decree signed
by Napoleon 1 establishes the numbering of houses per street. Even
numbers are right and the odd left over in the river Seine.
22 Feb – It is ordered
to the prefect of police to check the masquerades and "we can stop
running the streets in clerical dress".
23 Feb – It's Fat-Beef
day, continuing on 24 and 25.
9 Mar – A "press office" is created. It has to monitor newspapers,
plays, printing and library.
15 Mar – Napoleon 1 is
given the title of King of Italy by the Italian Consulta meeting in
18 Mar – Napoleon's sister Eliza gets from him, in any property, the
principality of Piombino.
26 Mar – A collection of
four million Francs is made from the fund of Disabled persons, "which is
rich and is constantly making considerable savings". They will be used
for construction of warships as well as improvements in ports.
28 Mar – From that day the
permission of the diocesan bishops will be required to print or reprint
of religious books. This permission will be reported verbatim and
printed at the beginning of each copy.
30 Mar – Exhibition in the
gallery of the Senate of the portrait of Napoleon 1 painted by
31 Mar – Departure of
Napoleon for Italy.
5 Apr – At Lyons, Napoleon's brothers-in-law, Bacciochi and Borghese,
receive the title of "Prince".
15 May – Napoleon 1 arrives in Milan.
26 May – Crowning at the
Cathedral of Milan.
4 Jun – Annexation to France of Genoa and Liguria.
7 Jun – The boundaries
between the French Empire and the Kingdom of Italy are set by decree:
the river Po to the mouth of the Ticino, then the Sesia to its mouth.
Appointment of Prince Eugene de Beauharnais as Viceroy of Italy. He is
the step-son of Napoleon.
11 Jul – Back at Fontainebleau.
14 Jul – Neither ceremony or
event for the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille.
15 Jul – The Journal of
Debates becomes Journal of the Empire, "more consistent with the nature
of our government," says the editor.
2 Aug – Departure of Napoleon 1 for the camp of Boulogne.
9 Aug – Accession of
Austria to the Anglo-Russian pact.
27 Aug – The camp of
Boulogne is lifted. One hundred and fifty thousand men go from the
Channel coast to the Rhine.
3 Sep – Back in St. Cloud. Publication of a manifesto hostile to
France, by the Emperor of Austria.
9 Sep – Restoration of
Gregorian calendar by Senatus Consultum; it will take effect on 11
Nivose year XIV (1 Jan 1806).
10 Sep – Entry of the
Austrians in Bavaria.
16 Sep – The Ambassador
of Austria publishes a paper stating that the troops of his sovereign
will remain in this country.
21 Sep – Commitment to
neutrality of the King of Naples in case of war between France and
23 Sep – Announcement
at the Senate of break with Austria. The sixty thousand men of the class
1806 are called early.
24 Sep – Napoleon 1
begins to head the army.
25 Sep – Passage of the
river Rhine by French troops.
25 Sep – Financial
panic in Paris.
28 Sep – Meeting of the
Bavarian army and the French army. Horatio Nelson takes command of the
English fleet by the blockade of Cadiz.
6 Oct – The campaign opens. The French army, reinforced by the
Bavarians and the Netherlands, takes the name of Grand Army (Grande
7 Oct – The river Danube
8 Oct – French victory at
9 Oct – New victory at
10 Oct – French army
11 Oct – The French are
13 Oct – Presentation of
14 Oct – Battle of
15 Oct – Fights of Haag
16 Oct – Summation from
Napoleon to General Mack: the city of Ulm must surrender.
17 Oct – Surrender of
18 Oct – Battle of
Nordlingen. Forty flags are captured from the enemy and sent to the
20 Oct – Procession of
the Austrian prisoners before Napoleon 1.
21 Oct – Naval battle
28 Oct – A case of
contributions or extraordinary is created. It is intended for war
contributions paid by the defeated countries.
30 Oct – French army
1 Nov – Fight of Lembach.
2 Nov – Fort Passling
3 Nov – Taking of
4 Nov – Taking of Steyr.
5 Nov – Battle of Lovers
and passage of the river Brenta.
6 Nov – Battle of
7 Nov – Coming in
8 Nov – Fight of
9 Nov – Taking of
Scharnitz and Neustadt.
11 Nov – Fight of Diernstein.
12 Nov – Taking of
13 Nov – The French
enter Vienna. Schoenbrunn Palace becomes the residence of Napoleon 1.
16 Nov – Surrender of the city of Pressburg to marshal Augereau.
18 Nov – Joachim Murat
28 Nov – The Emperor
studies the plain that will become the battlefield of Austerlitz.
2 Dec – Battle of Austerlitz: fortieth victory of Napoleon for
the first anniversary of his coronation.
4 Dec – Meeting between
Napoleon 1 and the Emperor of Austria.
6 Dec – The armistice is
26 Dec – Peace Treaty
of Pressburg is signed; it is the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
28 Dec – Decision is
taken by the General Council of the Department of Seine to establish a
place of Austerlitz and to erect a statue of the Emperor.
30 Dec – Napoleon
accepts the nickname "Great" that suggested the Tribunes.
about February - French squadron raids
July 4? - French capture British East Indiaman (details)
July 4 - 2 Russian ships defeat French gunboat force (details)
Cape Finisterre - Inconclusive action between British Admiral Calder
and French Admiral Villeneuve
August 6 - French attack British convoy (details)
Trafalgar - Nelson defeats combined Franco-Spanish fleet under
Admiral Villeneuve, losing his life but gaining control of the oceans
for Britain for the rest of the war
November 4 - British capture 4 French battleship survivors from
1 Jan – The Senate
receives the flags captured during the campaign of Austria.
5 Jan – The Mayors of
Paris vote the building of an arch of triumph at Napoleon's glory.
26 Jan – Return of
Napoleon 1 at Paris.
28 Jan – The Senate
decrees a monument at the Emperor.
13 Feb – Napoleon I writes at the Pope: "Your Holiness is the
sovereign of Rome, but I am the Emperor. All my enemies must be yours".-
17 Feb – A decree orders
the construction of the arch of triumph of the Place de l'Étoile.
19 Feb – A decree
prescribes to solemnly celebrate the 15 Aug of each Year, "the feast
of Saint-Napoleon and the restoration of the of the Catholic religion in
20 Feb – Napoleon orders
that the basilica of Saint-Denis will be used as the burial of his
22 Feb – A decree
prohibits the introduction in France of cotton fabrics manufactured
26 Feb – Order of
Napoleon: an arch of triumph will be erected on the site of the
Carrousel at the glory of the French army.
2 Mar – In a speech at the opening of the session of the Legislature,
Napoleon says: "My armies have left of defeat when I told them not to
battle, I have avenged the rights of weak states oppressed by the strong
and my allies have increased in thensance and consider my enemies were
humiliated and confused."
3 Mar – A decree adds to
the Conservatory of Music a special school of declamation.
12 Mar – In a report
presented at the Emperor, the minister of the Interior Jean-Baptiste de
Nompère de Champagny offers of replacing the statue of Charlemagne by
one of Napoleon at the top of the column planned for the Place Vendome.
18 Mar – Establishment of
21 Mar – Pope Pius VII
replies to Napoleon (see above at the date of the 13 Feb): "Your
Majesty establishes that in principle he is Emperor of Rome. We meet
with the franchise that the Apostolic Pope, now, from both of centuries
which no ruler can be proud, sovereign of Rome, does not recognize and
never acknowledged in his State than any other at the thensance own".
30 Mar – A statute
establishes the rights and duties of members of the Imperial House
towards the Emperor. Joseph Bonaparte is named King of Naples by his
4 Apr – Publication of a catechism approved by the cardinal legate of
the Pope as the only one in use in all Catholic churches of the Empire.
11 Apr – The departments of
the Netherlands, Upper-Rhine, Doubs, Jura, Côte-d'Or, Ain,
Saone-et-Loire, Rhone and Upper-Saone will pay half the expenses that
require the creation of a channel forming the junction of the Rhone and
the Rhine rivers, which will be called: Napoleon channel.
14 Apr – A deputation of
notables from Bordeaux comes to Paris to ask permission of raising at
Bordeaux an equestrian statue of the Emperor.
22 Apr – The Bank of France
becomes institution of state.
2 May – The insignia of the Legion of Honor will now be surmounted of
an imperial crown.
10 May – Foundation of the
24 May – Napoleon suppresses
the republican regime in Holland.
5 Jun – Napoleon 1 appoints his brother Louis Bonaparte King of
Holland. Bernadotte becomes Prince of Ponte-Corvo, Talleyrand becomes
Prince of Benevento.
8 Jun – Decree on the
theater system. The Odeon Theater becomes Theater of the Empress.
10 Jun – The importation of
British goods in the kingdom of Italy is prohibited.
21 Jun – Because of the Pope
refuses to expel the English of Rome, French troops occupy the port of
Civita Vecchia, by order of Napoleon.
24 Jun – A decree prohibits
gambling houses throughout the extent of the French Empire.
10 Jul – Napoleon Ist sends to Italy two French actors troops.
12 Jul – Sixteen states in
present-day Germany leave the Holy Roman Empire and joined together in a
confederation called "Confederation of the Rhine", under the
protectorate of Napoleon.
16 Jul – Creation of a "Fund
of service" where the tax collectors have to deposit funds as soon as
they recover them.
24 Jul – The troops of
infantry receive a new uniform.
1 Aug – At the Diet of Regensburg, fourteen German princes announce
their union to the Confederation of the Rhine, under the protectorate of
the Emperor of the French.
3 Aug – Closure of the
conscription of 1806.
6 Aug – Francis II renounces at the title of Emperor of Germany and proclaims himself
Emperor of Austria under the name of Francis 1.
11 Aug – The Count of
Metternich, Ambassador of Austria, delivers to Napoleon 1 his letters of
14 Aug – Creation of
Majorats, which are hereditary fiefs of the Empire.
15 Aug – The Feast of the
Emperor anniversary is celebrated with games, lights and fireworks.
Laying of the foundation stone of the arch of triumph of the Etoile.
6 Sep – The King Frederick William III of Prussia, in a letter to
the Emperor Alexander I of Russia, declares himself ready to attack "the
disturber of the rest of the world" the day when the Russian armies
would Mar and when the subsidies of England would have reached.
10 Sep – The Prussian
troops begin to move.
12 Sep – They come in
13 Sep – Death of
Charles James Fox, the only supporter of peace in the british government.
17 Sep – First
movements of French troops: the army corps of Marshal Bernadotte turns
on in the direction of Bayreuth.
19 Sep – Marshals
Davout and Ney get the order of joining the body of their army.
20 Sep – Napoleon 1
sends a call at his German allies.
24 Sep – The Imperial
Guard leaves Paris.
25 Sep – Napoleon
leaves Saint-Cloud at 4 AM for the campaign.
30 Sep – Creation of
the reserve army of the Rhine, in order to keep the communication with
the Grand Army committed in Germany, and to be used as backup troops.
Victory of Marshal Marmont on a body of Russian army at Castelnuovo.
1 Oct – Ultimatum of Prussia which requires that French troops
5 Oct – First horse race
ever in Paris.
6 Oct – Arrived at
Bamberg, Napoleon reviews the Imperial Guard and addresses a
proclamation to his army.
8 Oct – The French spend
the Saale and enter Cobourg.
9 Oct – The first battle
of the campaign takes place near the city of Schleitz, in the presence
of Napoleon, .
10 Oct – Battle of
Saalfeld. Prince Louis of Prussia is killed.
11 Oct – The vanguard of
the French army reaches Leipzig.
12 Oct – Taking of
Naumburg. Napoleon writes to the King of Prussia, advising him to
renounce at the war.
14 Oct – Battle of
15 Oct – Napoleon returns
on parole six thousand Saxons captured the day before.
16 Oct – Fourteen
thousand Prussians locked in Erfurt surrender to Marshal Murat.
17 Oct – Combat and
taking of the city of Halle.
18 Oct – Entry of the
French army into Leipzig.
19 Oct – Enter at
20 Oct – Enter at
21 Oct – Arrival of
French headquarters at Potsdam.
22 Oct – Acting at the
name of the King of Prussia, the Marquis of Lucchesini arrives at
Wittenberg and requests for peace to Napoleon .
23 Oct – Installation of
the French command at Charlottenburg.
24 Oct – Emperor Napoleon
1 visites the palace of Sanssouci and the room of Frederick II the
25 Oct – Napoleon reviews
his guard at Potsdam.
26 Oct – Napoleon goes
and meditates at the tomb of Frederick II, and announces that the sword
of the King will be part of the spoils that will be sent to Paris.
27 Oct – Napoleon enters
28 Oct – The Prince of
Hohenlohe and his 17,000 soldier surrender in Prentzlow.
29 Oct – The city of
30 Oct – French army
takes possession of the States of the Duke of Brunswick.
31 Oct – Taking of
possession of the country of Hesse-Cassel.
1 Nov – Taking of the city of Castrini by Marshal Davout.
4 Nov – The French enter
5 Nov – Marshal
Bernadotte occupies the city of Schoenberg.
6 Nov – Taking of Lubeck
by General Drouet.
7 Nov – The remnants of
the army of Blücher capitulate.
8 Nov – French enter
9 Nov – A contribution
of one hundred and fifty million Francs is required from the allies of
10 Nov – Taking of
possession of the Electorate of Hanover.
11 Nov – Arrival of the
Russians, who come at the relief of the Prussians.
16 Nov – A ceasefire is
signed between France Prussia at Charlottenburg.
19 Nov – A deputation of
the French Senate is received by Napoleon at the royal palace of Berlin.
21 Nov – Napoleon decrees the blockade of the British Isles: all trading with the United
Kingdom is prohibited, including neutral countries.
25 Nov – The Emperor
28 Nov – Entry of the
French Army at Warsaw.
13 Dec – Birth of Charles Leon, the illegitimate son of Napoleon
and of Eleanor Denuelle de la Plaigne, maid of honor of Caroline Murat.
19 Dec – Arrival of
Napoleon at Warsaw.
22 Dec – Passage of the
Vistula river by the cavalry of Marshal Davout.
26 Dec – French
victories at Soldau, Golymin and Pultusk.
27 Dec – The French army
goes into winter quarters at Pultusk.
San(to) Domingo - British under Duckworth defeat French under
Leissegues (French) off Santo Domingo
July 4 - Russians defeat French in Narenta Channel
July 26 - British defeat Dutch (details)
September 25 - British battleships defeat French frigate force (details)
1 Jan – Napoleon 1
meets Maria Walewska for the first time.
5 Jan – The city of
Breslau (nowadays Wroclaw) surrenders.
7 Jan – The British
government reacts to the Berlin decree of 21 Nov 1806 by blocking
all ports of France and French colonies.
13 Jan – Poland is
entirely evacuated by the Russians.
29 Jan – End of winter
30 Jan – Napoleon leaves
8 Feb – Battle of Preussisch-Eylau.
12 Feb – Fight of
15 Feb – The city of
Schwednitz is taken by French army.
16 Feb – Battle of
19 Feb – Fight of
24 Feb – Battle of Glatz.
25 Feb – Fight of
26 Feb – Taking of
6 Mar – Fight of Wittemburg.
7 Mar – Fight of Zecheren.
12 Mar – Start of the siege
20 Mar – Five legions of
reserves are created, composed of conscripts from 1808; they must defend
the borders and coasts of the French Empire.
1 Apr – Castle of Finckenstein becomes the headquarters of Napoleon.
7 Apr – Class 1808 (80,000
men) is called in advance.
15 Apr – From Napoleon 1 to
Joseph Fouché: "We must give the public a firmer direction ... There is
no question of talking incessantly about peace. This is the good way not
to have it, but to implement protective measures on all points".
25 Apr – A new alliance is
signed between the King Frederick William III of Prussia and the Emperor
Alexander I of Russia at Bartenstein. They undertake not to deal with
Napoleon before France has been reduced to the boundary of the river
4 May – A pact of friendship is signed at Finckenstein between France
17 May – The sword of
Frederick the Great solemnly enters the Invalides.
26 May – City of Danzig
surrenders to Marshal Lefebvre.
6 Jun – Napoleon leaves Finckenstein and enters into campaign.
14 Jun – Battle of
16 Jun – French enter
Koenigsberg (nowadays Kaliningrad).
19 Jun – Arrival of Napoleon
21 Jun – A one-month truce
with Russia is signed at Tilsit.
25 Jun – Two Emperors
Napoleon and Alexander I meet on a raft in the middle of the river
28 Jun – King of Prussia
arrives in Tilsit.
29 Jun – The three monarchs
are holding a friendly conference.
4 Jul – In the Mercure de France (french newspaper): "In vain Nero
prospers... Tacitus is already born in the Empire", signed:
François-René de Chateaubriand.
6 Jul – The Queen Louise of
Prussia arrives at her turn at Tilsit.
8 Jul – The Peace Treaty of
Tilsit and a Franco-Russian alliance are signed.
9 Jul – Napoleon I leaves
21 Jul – Prefects of the
French Empire are ranked by results obtained in hunting for draft
22 Jul – The Great-Duchy of
Warsaw is created.
27 Jul – Return of Napoleon
29 Jul – An army of 20,000
men is gathered in Bayonne (Southwest France) in order to invade
Portugal, which is still trading with England.
9 Aug – Talleyrand leaves the Foreign Ministry.
11 Aug – The King of
Denmark receives from the British government summons to join the
15 Aug – A Te Deum is sung
at Notre-Dame-de-Paris, on the occasion of Napoleon's bithday and to
celebrate peace, Napoleon himself attending.
18 Aug – Jerome Bonaparte, Napoleon's youngest brother, is named King of Westphalia.
19 Aug – The Tribunes are
removed by Senatus consultum. Its powers are transferred to the
27 Aug – Note of Napoleon
to Emmanuel Crétet, Minister of Interior: "Caring for the Imperial
Library, first by organizing it. We need a leader for all."
2 Sep – Bombardment of Copenhagen by the English.
3 Sep – The interest
rate of money is limited by law to five percent in civil and six per
cent in trade.
7 Sep – Copenhagen
surrenders to the English.
11 Sep – The french
Commercial Code is published.
14 Sep – Surrender of the British expeditionary force in Egypt to Muhammad Ali.
16 Sep – The Court of
Auditors is created in Paris.
10 Oct – A treaty outlining the boundaries between the Austrian
provinces and the Kingdom of Italy is signed.
12 Oct – General
Jean-Andoche Junot is ordered to cross the Spanish border, within
14 Oct – Napoleon
establishes measures to be taken by allies of France in order to
maintain the continental blockade.
15 Oct – From Napoleon to
the ambassador of Portugal: "If Portugal does not do what I want, the
House of Braganza will no longer reign in Europe in two months".
17 Oct – The French army
enters Spain after crossing the Pyrenees Mountains.
20 Oct – The British
evacuate Copenhagen, but take the Danish fleet. Portugal officially
declares war to England.
22 Oct – A secret
alliance is concluded between Portugal and England.
27 Oct – A secret treaty
of Fontainebleau between France and Spain plans the sharing of Portugal.
1 Nov – A Superintendent of entertainment is created; the four
main theaters of the capital will be under his authority.
11 Nov – An English government injunction requires all neutral ships to pass through England
before landing on the continent.
16 Nov – Napoleon I leaves for Milan.
23 Nov – In Milan he takes the following decree: "Any ship, under any flag whatever, having
been visited by English or having entered a port in England, will be
considered as English and treated as such" .
29 Nov – Prince Regent
of Portugal and his family board for Brazil on a British ship.
30 Nov – The French
3 Dec – The twenty richest merchants and bankers of Lisbon
subscribe to a forced loan of two million Cruzadas.
14 Dec – Inauguration of
the French flag in Lisbon, which causes a popular riot.
23 Dec – Portugal is
imposed a contribution of one hundred million Francs.
February 19 - British battleships under
Duckworth burn several Turkish ships in Dardanelles (details)
May - British vs Turks at mouth of Dardanelles (details)
May 22, 23
Dardanelles - Russians under
Admiral Seniavin defeat Turks near Cape Janizary
Athos (Lemnos/Monte Sancto) - Russians under Seniavin defeats Turks
in northern Aegean
August 23 and 31 - Danes defeat British light forces near Copenhagen
Copenhagen - British forces under Admiral Gambier and General
Cathcart capture the Danish fleet
1 Jan – Napoleon I
returns to Paris.
4 Jan – He visits the
studio of First Imperial painter Jacques-Louis David along with
Josephine; both can admire the painting of the coronation.
16 Jan – The final status
of the Bank of France are set by decree.
21 Jan – The 80,000 men
of class 1809 are called early.
22 Jan – The towns of
Kehl, Cassel, Wesel and Flushing (Vlissingen) are annexed to the Empire.
28 Jan – French troops
receive an order from Napoleon to enter in Catalonia.
1 Feb – A council of government is held in Lisbon by General
Junot, who becomes Governor General of the kingdom of Portugal.
2 Feb – French troops
enter Rome. They occupate the Castle of Sant'Angelo. A proposal is done
by Napoleon to the Emperor of Russia Alexander I to send a
Franco-Russian army into Asia "to kneel England".
4 Feb – French troops
15 Feb – The citadel of
Pamplona is taken.
16 Feb – Barcelona is
taken at its turn.
20 Feb – Joachim Murat
becomes "Lieutenant of the Emperor" in Spain.
1 Mar – A new nobility is established in the French Empire.
17 Mar – The University of
France replaces the General Directorate of Public Instruction; it is
headed by a Grand Master. The Jewish worship is regulated by decree.
18 Mar – Uprising of the
Spanish people, at the instigation of the Crown Prince Ferdinand.
Abdication of King Charles IV and fall of Manuel Godoy ministry. Prince
Ferdinand is proclaimed King.
23 Mar – The French reach
27 Mar – The provinces of
Urbino, Macerata, Ancona and Camerino, possessions of the Holy See, are
united in the Kingdom of Italy. Napoleon is excommunicated by Pope Pius
29 Mar – The Spanish people
is called to arms by the junta of Seville.
2 Apr – Napoleon I moves to Bayonne (French Basque country), on the
pretext of visiting the southern departments. He indeed awaits the
arrival of the King of Spain.
3nd Apr – The Pope's legate,
Cardinal Caprara, leaves Paris.
7 Apr – A French detachment
penetrates the papal palace in Rome and disarms the Swiss Guards.
14 Apr – Arrival of
Napoleon at Bayonne.
20 Apr – King Ferdinand VII
of Spain arrives at Bayonne and visits Napoleon.
1 May – Arrival of Charles IV at Bayonne, accompanied by his wife.
Napoleon receives them for dinner.
2 May – Anti-French
population riot in Madrid ("Dos de Mayo").
5 May – Charles IV puts his
crown on Napoleon's disposal by a statement signed by him.
10 May – Ferdinand and his
brothers agree with their father's declaration.
18 May – The Spanish princes
arrive at their residence of Valençay (center of France), established by
22 May – Pope Pius VII
forbids the bishops to obey the French government.
23 May – The canon Llano
Ponte calls the inhabitants of Ovido (Asturias) for uprising against the
24 May – Italian duchies of
Parma, Piacenza, and Tuscany are united to French Empire; they become
departments of Toro, Arno, Mediterranean and Ombrone.
27 May – Violent anti-French
events in Valencia, Spain.
28 May – Uprising of the
people of Cadiz.
30 May – Massacres in
31 May – Valladolid rises up.
2 Jun – In a proclamation addressed to the Spaniards, Napoleon 1 says:
"I want to be your regenerator".
3 Jun – Segovia is the scene
of violent unrest.
6 Jun – Joseph Bonaparte,
Napoleon's elder brother, is appointed King of Spain. The junta of
Seville declares war to France.
11 Jun – French army enters
Valladolid after the battle of Cabezon.
12 Jun – First meeting, in
Bayonne, of a francophile "Spanish Junta".
13 Jun – The Counselor of
the Inquisition of Spain requests the Junta of Bayonne to maintain his
14 Jun –French admiral
François-Etienne de Rosily Mesros and his squadron surrender to the
spanish insurgents outside the harbour of Cadiz.
16 Jun – Battle at Zaragoza.
18 Jun – Joseph 1, the new
King of Spain, is presented to the Junta of Bayonne, which is put in
charge of writing a new constitution.
19 Jun – The French leave
Cordova and retire to Andujar.
1 Jul – An assault on Saragossa by French troops is repulsed.
15 Jul – Joachim Murat
becomes King of Naples in place of Joseph Bonaparte.
20 Jul – Arrival of Joseph
Bonaparte in Madrid.
21 Jul – Surrender of Bailen,
the first major failure of the Napoleonic armies (20,000 French soldiers,
uncercled in Andalusia, are taken prisoners).
25 Jul – Joseph Bonaparte is
proclaimed King of Spain during a ceremony in Madrid.
30 Jul – The new king must
leave his capital hastily. English army lands in Portugal.
1 Aug – Evacuation of Madrid by French troops. English General
Arthur Wellesley of Wellington lands in Portugal.
4 Aug – The French seize a
portion of Zaragoza ...
14 Aug – ...before
abandoning the siege.
21 Aug – General Junot is
defeated at Vimiero, by English troops strengthened with Portuguese
30 Aug – Junot signs the
Convention of Cintra with the English. The French evacuate Portugal.
8 Sep – French Senate approves a special levy of 160,000 soldiers,
bringing together the provided classes from 1807 to 1809 and conscripts
of 1810 called in advance.
17 Sep – The monopoly
of education is granted to the University.
22 Sep – Napoleon
leaves Saint-Cloud at five o'clock AM.
27 Sep – He meets
Alexander I, Tsar of Russia, on the day of his arrival in Erfurt.
1 Oct – Napoleon 1 has his first visit from Johann Wolfgang von
2 Oct – Another visit
12 Oct – Both Emperors of
France and Russia sign an agreement renewing their alliance. The "Grand
Army of Germany" is abolished by decree; it takes the name "Army of the
Rhine" and is reduced to a hundred thousand soldiers.
14 Oct – Both sovereigns
separate with touching demonstrations of friendship.
15 Oct – Nearly
simultaneous entry in Spain of an English army and the vanguard of the
18 Oct – Return of
Napoleon at Saint-Cloud.
29 Oct – New leaving of
the Emperor, this time it's for Spain.
5 Nov – The "King Joseph" and his "court", refugees in Vittoria,
see the Emperor Napoleon's arrival.
6 Nov – Napoleon
proclaims that "The Emperor commands his army in person".
7 Nov – The evacuation
of all hospitals between Tolosa and Vitoria is ordered to make room for
future injured soldiers.
10 Nov – The Spaniards
are beaten at Espinosa.
13 Nov – From Napoleon
to General Dejean, Director of Administration for War, from Burgos: "I've
never seen a country where the army was better and more abundantly fed.
But shoes and coats, this is what we missed."
14 Nov – From Napoleon
to the same Dejean: "I have nothing, I am naked, my army is in need, and
your offices make fun of me. Those who are in charge are fools or knaves".
16 Nov – To Marshal
Soult: "I long to hear that you went to Santander. Try to seize what
belongs to the English. Please put the receiver on all wools and the
British and colonial goods". Entry of Soult in Santander.
17 Nov – Again to
General Dejean: "My army lacks everything. I am obliged to use
extraordinary means, which always produces a bad effect. Your dress
office is composed of idiots."
19 Nov – To Emmanuel
Crétet, Interior Minister: "The Duke of Infantado and grandees of Spain
own half of the kingdom of Naples; evaluate their properties in the
kingdom to 200 million Francs is not too much. They also have
possessions in Belgium, and Piedmont in Italy, my intention is to
22 Nov – Marshal Ney
enters Soria. His troops begin to Mar towards Madrid.
23 Nov – Battle of
28 Nov – The British
troops leave Spain and return to Portugal.
30 Nov – Battle of
2 Dec – Arrival of French before Madrid.
4 Dec – Surrender of
Madrid. Order of Napoleon I: "The feudal rights are abolished in Spain
and the court of the Inquisition is abolished; the number of existing
monasteries will be reduced to third; provincial customs are abolished,
the Council of Castile is removed, its members will be arrested".
5 Dec – From Napoleon to
General Belliard, governor of Madrid: "Billet the officers in the houses
of the emigrants, taking care to reserve the best room for a general
officer ... Please also prepare stables in convents and houses of
7 Dec – Proclamation to
the Spaniards: "I went to Madrid. The Rights of War authorized me to
give a great example and wash in the blood the wrongs made to me and my
nation. I've heard that clemency. Some men, perpetrators of all your
woes will only be punished". Start of requisitions, under the authority
of Anne-Jean-Marie-René Savary, Duke of Rovigo, who has come specially
9 Dec – The Corregidor
of Madrid, received in audience by Napoleon, hears the Emperor declaring
to him: "I do not refuse to cede my conquest rights to the King [Joseph
Bonaparte] and set Him in Madrid, when the thirty thousand citizens of
the capital have expressed their feelings and loyalty."
10 Dec – It is ordered
that the Gazette of Madrid will appear daily.
11 Dec – Reappearance of
English troops in Spain. General Savary reports to the Emperor: "The
operation of the first seizure in ten large houses designated by Your
Majesty is completed. Yesterday the taxman had received five thousand
and a few hundred marks of silver and about 600,000 Francs silver coin.
There was still something to receive. I do not count some gold jewelry,
diamonds and some pearls he received too."
14 Dec – The amount of
money seized in the treasury of the Inquisition, according Belliard,
equals 613,493 Francs in French money. Napoleon decides: "Give the order
that the funds be deposited promptly at the taxman's, and research all
other funds belonging to the Inquisition."
15 Dec – Order is given
to proceed with the creation of a Spanish National Guard in Madrid as in
18 Dec – From Napoleon
to Joseph, King of Spain: "To live in a year, we must live today, live
for today, it takes money ... This is already a fortnight ago, and it is
the most precious moments, as are those of force. There is no time to
lose to get a stock of thirty million rials in cash". From Savary to the
Emperor: "Research done at the Dowager Duchess of Osuna had a full
success. We just carry on paying in about fifteen or sixteen quintals of
silverware, and the accountant of the house gave a statement to nine
million reals revenue".
20 Dec – The new
headquarters are set in Zaragoza.
21 Dec – Three hundred
quintals of bark of Spain will, by order of Napoleon, be distributed to
forty-two cities of the Empire.
22 Dec – Napoleon passes
the Guadarrama river with part of his guard. He decides to personally
take charge of operations against the English army.
27 Dec – Concentration
of the English army in Benavente.
29 Dec – Napoleon
defeats the English at Benavente.
9–14 June -
Capture of Rosily Squadron
3 March Spain captures French battleship Atlas.
1 Jan – Napoleon I receives a telegram sent by Jean-Jacques Régis de Cambacérès informing him that
Austria is preparing to war.
4 Jan – From Napoleon to General Clarke,
Minister of War: "I wish the erection of a monument in Erfurt, to consecrate the
union of the two Emperors, I'll do the costs."
6 Jan – To his brother
Joseph, King of Spain: "I thank you for what you say regarding the New Year. I
do not hope that Europe can yet be pacified this year. I hope so little that I
signed a decree yesterday to levy 100,000 people".
7 Jan – To Admiral
Denis Decrès, Minister of Marine: "Now that the Russian ships are at Toulon,
their officers and crews will be maintained, paid and treated as French vessels
11 Jan – To Joseph, from Valladolid, Spain: "You can make
your entrance into Madrid when you think it's advisable."
16 Jan – Battle of La Coruna. Sir John Moore, commanding general of the British army, is
killed on the battlefield. His army (what remains of it) must leave Spain.
17 Jan – Napoleon leaves Spain.
22 Jan – Joseph enters again
23 Jan – Arrival of the Emperor in Paris.
28 Jan – Declaration of Napoleon to Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, in a cabinet
at the Tuileries Palace: "You are a thief, a coward, a man without faith, you do
not believe in God, you've missed all your life at all your homework, you have
deceived and betrayed everybody, there's nothing sacred about you, you would
sell your father ... What do you want? What do you expect? Dare to say! You
deserve that I will break you like a glass, I have power, but I despise you too
much to bother." Talleyrand sighs: "What a pity that such a great man is so rude!"
6 Feb – From Napoleon to Joseph: "I am sorry that the system changes
in Madrid for becoming too indulgent ... I think it is necessary that you show a
little severe, and you do not let anyone engaging in false and premature hopes".
7 Feb – To his brother Jerome Bonaparte, King of Westphalia, havink
asked for money: "The demand for money is untimely and tactless, at a moment
when I do not know how to deal with huge expenses that I have, since my armies
of Spain don't yield anything and cost a lot, and my other armies are in my care."
21 Feb – Surrender of Zaragoza; its siege lasted sixty days.
7 Mar – The sovereign members of the Confederation of the Rhine are
requested to gather their troops before Mar 20.
9 Mar – Minister
of Marine is ordered to send one thousand two hundred sailors to the Rhine Army.
11 Mar – French troops receive order to concentrate on the river Danube.
20 Mar – The Emperor Napoleon 1 orders to prepare a travel library. He
calls for "something very distinguished, by the choice of books and editions and
by the beauty and elegance of bindings".
21 Mar – From Napoleon to his
brother Louis, King of Holland: "The war seems imminent. What you better do is
to gather as many troops as possible in order to defend your country and be of
some use to the common cause."
24 Mar – To Nicolas-François Mollien,
Minister of the Treasury: "The affairs are becoming serious with Austria. Give
orders for gathering in Strasbourg four millions Francs in gold and silver, in
the shortest possible time. Two millions will be earmarked for expenditure of
various departments of the war; the other two will be at my disposal ... If you
have bills to Augsburg, and that you can make money with them, I would like to
have one million Francs in that place."
27 Mar – Austria issues a
manifesto against France.
30 Mar – Napoleon writes detailed
instructions for the campaign ahead; they are intended for his chief of staff,
1 Apr – From Napoleon 1 to Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny,
Minister of Foreign Relations: "Please insert in newspapers articles about
everything that is provocative and offensive against the French nation in all
that occurs in Vienna ... The purpose of these articles is to establish that
they want to make war to us. "
7 Apr – The Austrian troops are massed
on the borders of Bavaria.
8 Apr – The Austrian army crosses the river
Inn near Braunau.
9 Apr – An aide of the Archduke Charles officialy
notifies the declaration to Marshal Lefebvre.
12 Apr – At eight o'clock
PM in Paris, Napoleon receives a telegram from Marshal Berthier informing him of
the Austrian declaration. The Emperor announces: "I shall set out within two
13 Apr – Napoleon leaves Paris at four o'clock AM.
16 Apr – He arrives in Stuttgart.
17 Apr – Proclamation of Napoleon to
his troops: "I come among you at the speed of the eagle ... Our past success are
for us a sure guarantee of victory."
19 Apr – Battle of Thann.
Apr – Battle of Abensberg. From Napoleon to Marshal André Masséna: "The
enemy is retreating at full speed. The battlefield is covered with the dead ...
I'll ride and recognize the situation of things at the forefront. "
21 Apr – The Austrian army escapes. Landshut is taken.
22 Apr – Battle of
23 Apr – Regensburg is stormed. The shock of a bullet bruises
the Emperor's right foot.
24 Apr – Battle of Neumarkt. In a
proclamation to his army, Napoleon promises: "Within a month we shall be in
26 Apr – The French army Mar 1809es on Vienna.
30 Apr – Entry of the troops of marshal Lefebvre in Salzburg.
3 May – Fight
5 May – From Napoleon 1 to marshal Davout, Duke of
Auerstaedt: "I suppose you're arriving today in Linz ... Please destroy all coat
of arms of the House of Austria. Leave the town guard if it is small. Order a
general disarmament. Sequester funds and shops".
10 May – General Oudinot's division enters the suburbs of Vienna.
11 May – Installation of
Napoleon at Schoenbrunn Palace.
12 May – Napoleon gives order to bomb
Vienna. The Archduke Maximilian abandons his troops.
13 May – The
capitulation is signed in Vienna at 2 AM. The gates of the city are occupied by
Oudinot at 6 AM. New proclamation of Napoleon to his army: "The princes of the
House of Lorraine gave up their capital towm, not as soldiers who give honor to
the circumstances and setbacks of the war, but as perjuries pursued by their own
remorse ... Soldiers! Be kind to the poor peasants and the good people who both
claim to our esteem. Do not keep any pride in our success, but it shows evidence
of this justice that punishes the ungrateful and perjury".
14 May – The
supplies of food owed by the Austrian population are precisely determined.
"Mobile columns" are formed and put in charge to travel the country.
– Proclamation of Napoleon to the Hungarians: "The time has come to regain
your independence. I offer you peace, the integrity of your country, your
freedom and your constitution ... I want nothing from you, I only want to see
you as a free and independent nation. "
16 May – Cities of Altmarkt and
Mariazell attempt to resist.
17 May – In his "Imperial camp of Vienna"
Napoleon decides to unite Papal States to the French Empire. Rome becomes an
imperial and free city.
20 May – General Molitor's division, having
crossed the river Danube, is positioned at Gross-Aspern and Essling.
– First day of the battle of Aspern-Essling.
22 May – Second day of
the battle of Aspern-Essling. Marshal Jean Lannes is mortally wounded.
– Napoleon escapes an assassination attempt during his stay in Regensburg.
25 May – The Danube bridges destroyed during the second day of the battle
of Aspern-Essling are restored.
26 May – French armies of Italy and
Germany join up in Semmering.
27 May – Proclamation of Napoleon to the
Army of Italy: "Welcome. I'm pleased with you ... The Austrian army of Italy,
who one moment sullied by his presence my provinces, who pretended to break my
Iron crown, dispersed, beaten, destroyed... thanks to you, is an example of the
truth of this motto: « Dio me la diede, guai a chi la tocca ! »".
29 May – Napoleon to Marshal Alexander Berthier, Prince of Neuchâtel: "Cousin, order to
demolish the village which forms the bridgehead from Linz, and to establish at
its place a reduced at the bridgehead."
5 Jun – Battle of Klagenfurt.
10 Jun – In Rome, the French flag
takes over from the papal flag at Sant'Angelo Castle. Pope Pius VII makes public
the bull of excommunication of Napoleon.
19 Jun – From Napoleon to
Joachim Murat, King of Naples and the Two Sicilies: "If the Pope preaches revolt,
we must place him under arrest."
26 Jun – Several neighborhoods in the
city of Pressburg (today Bratislava) are destroyed by the bombing ordered by
1 Jul – Napoleon leaves Schoenbrunn Palace.
5 Jul – The battle
of Wagram begins at Enzersdorf.
6 Jul – Continuation and end of the
battle of Wagram. In Rome, Pope Pius VII is arrested and led to Savona.
11 Jul – French victory at Znaim. Napoleon receives an envoy from the Emperor
of Austria Francis I carrying a request for an armistice.
12 Jul – Signing of the Armistice of Znaim. Austria agrees to pay a contribution of 196
13 Jul – Napoleon returns to Schoenbrunn.
18 Jul – Letter to Joseph Fouché: "I am sorry that we have arrested the Pope; it's a
great folly ... But there is no remedy, what is done is done."
21 Jul – Other areas of Hanover are distributed by Napoleon to generals and high
officials of the Empire. Revenues are estimated at 2,323,000 Francs.
30 Jul – The British land near Antwerp.
3 Aug – Declaration of Napoleon to notables of Galicia (central
Europe): "The restoration of Poland at this moment is impossible for France ...
I do not want war with Russia. "
9 Aug – The fortified town of Antwerp
prepares for a siege.
13 Aug – Bombing of Flushing by the English.
14 Aug – Flushing surrenders.
15 Aug – Fortieth birthday of
the Emperor. On this occasion, the castles of Chambord, Bruha and Thouars, are
erected principalities of Wagram, Eckmühl and Essling and given respectively to
marshals Berthier, Davout and Massena.
4 Sep – The English abandon the siege of Antwerp.
10 Sep – 80,000 conscripts are levied. Napoleon to the surveyor-general Pierre Daru: "It
seems to me that it was agreed that at 10 Sep Lower Austria have paid
twelve million Francs in contributions... I see in your previous statements it
has only paid eight million, please let me know why. Upper Austria has yet only
paid 200,000 Francs: it's too ridiculous!"
25 Sep – Friedrich Staps,
a young Austrian, announces to his parents his departure and his intention to
kill Napoleon, as God commands him.
13 Oct – Staps attempts to assassinate Napoleon at Schoenbrunn Palace.
14 Oct – End of the 1809 campaign, with the Peace Treaty of Vienna.
17 Oct – Staps is executed.
26 Oct – Napoleon returns to
15 Nov – Installation of Napoleon 1 at the Tuileries.
16 Nov – Cardinal Fesch is appointed to head a committee of bishops.
19 Nov – Appointments: Joseph Fouché becomes Duke of Otranto, Claude-Ambroise
Régnier: Duke of Massa, Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny: Duke of Cadore;
Michel-Martin Gaudin: Duke of Gaeta, Henri-Jacques-Guillaume Clarke: Duke of
Feltre; Hugues-Bernard Maret: Duke of Bassano.
30 Nov – Napoleon informs Empress Josephine they must divorce.
15 Dec – Napoleon and Josephine declare to the imperial family
assembled they surrender their marriage.
16 Dec – "The marriage
between the Emperor Napoleon and Empress Josephine is dissolved" by an act of
17 Dec – From Napoleon to Josephine: "You have shown
courage, you must find to sustain you, it must not allow yourself a fatal
melancholy, we must find you happy and especially your health care, which is so
19 Dec – ... again to Josephine: "Savary said that you
always crying, this is not good ... I'll come and see you when you tell me that
you are reasonable and that your spirit takes over. "
21 Dec – Appointment of thirty-seven chamberlains.
24 Dec – From Napoleon to
the Minister of Foreign Affairs Nompère de Champagny, Duke of Cadore: "It is
time to conclude the affairs of Germany ... I will give to the Bavarian the
country of Salzburg and all the country ceded by Austria on the right bank of
the river Inn, and the principality of Bayreuth too, on condition that I reserve
areas in the country of Salzburg for a capital of 10 million, and the
principality of Bayreuth for 20 million ... Give me a plan for negotiations,
after which you'll begin by asking for more, then releasing, but not beyond the
terms contained in this letter, which is the minimum of what I can make. "
29 Dec – The Illyrian provinces (Dalmatia) are attached to the French
April 13–17 - British capture French
battleship near Porto Rico
late May -
HMS Melpomène vs Danish gunboats
June 25–27 - British and Sicilians vs French near Pozzuoli Bay
October 26 and 31 Cette and ? - Southern France
November 18 - French frigates defeat British East Indiamen near
December 13 - French frigates capture
HMS Junon (details)
1 Jan – It is decided to erect
on the periphery of the Concorde Bride large statues of eight generals dead on
5 Jan – Letter of Marie-Louise of Austria to her father,
the Emperor of Austria Francis I: "I read today in the journal papers on
Napoleon's divorce from his wife, I must confess, dear father, that I was deeply
6 Jan – France and Sweden conclude an alliance.
9 Jan –
The marriage of Napoleon is declared invalid by the Officiality from Paris about
the spiritual connection. A nine francs fine is imposed on the Emperor.
11 Jan – The Bishop Committee is asked three series of questions by Napoleon,
including: "The bull of excommunication of 10 Jun 1809 being contrary to
Christian charity, and independence and the honor of the throne, what to do to
ensure that in times of trouble and calamity, the Popes do not wear to such
excesses of power?"
17 Jan – From Napoleon to Josephine: "D'Audenarde told
me you lack of courage since you're at Malmaison. This place however is
full of feelings that can not and should never change, at least on my side ...
If you doubt me, you'd be ungrateful."
28 Jan – The Privy Council of the
Emperor receives the mission to decide his future wife: a Russian princess,
Austrian, Saxon, or even French.
6 Feb – Armand de Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza, announces to Napoleon 1
that Emperor Alexander I of Russia refuses to give him the hand of his sister.
7 Feb – The temporary contract of marriage between Napoleon and
Marie-Louise of Austria is signed in Paris.
16 Feb – Ratification of this
contract in Vienna.
17 Feb – An organic senatus-consultum provides in
Article #7: "The Crown Prince bears the title and received the honors of King of
20 Feb – Andreas Hofer, the leader of the Tyrolean uprising of
1809, is executed in Mantua .
23 Feb – Napoleon writes his first letter
25 Feb – The House of the future Empress is set up.
5 Mar – Answer from Marie-Louise to Napoleon: "I beg your Imperial Majesty to
be convinced that I now consider as an obligation to take care to develop the
qualities that will make me better in His person and His reconciling me
11 Mar – Blessing of the union of Marie-Louise and Napoleon in
the parish church of the Hofburg, in Vienna. The Empress is represented by the
Archduke Charles of Austria.
13 Mar – Marie-Louise leaves Vienna.
– Announcement of the marriage of six thousand former soldiers throughout
France, brides being endowed by the Emperor.
27 Mar – Napoleon leaves
Compiègne to join Marie-Louise; they meet in front of the church of
30 Mar – The couple leaves Compiegne.
1 Apr – Celebration of civil marriage at Saint-Cloud.
2 Apr – Cardinal
Fesch celabrates the religious marriage in the "Salon Carré" of the Louvre VOIR
27 Apr – Departure for honeymoon: Northern France, Belgium, Normandy.
1 May – The United States Congress vote the "Macon's Bill Number 2", which
prohibits importation of goods from Great Britain, France or their colonies,
4 May – Birth of Alexander Colonna Walewski, the
illegitimate son of Napoleon 1 and Maria Walewska.
1 Jun – Return of newlyweds in Saint-Cloud.
3 Jun – Joseph Fouché, Duke of
Otranto, is appointed Governor of Rome and must leave the Police Department.
6 Jun – The Trade and Manufactures Council is created.
10 Jun – The imperial
couple is solemnly received at City Hall of Paris. The Phrygian cap, which
appeared on its front since 1793, and the inscription on the façade "Unity,
indivisibility of the Republic, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death" are
13 Jun – Visit of Napoleon to Josephine.
21 Jun – Marie-Louise
and Napoleon visit the Trianon and the Palace of Versailles.
29 Jun –
Fouché's appointment as Governor of Rome is canceled. He retires in Aix, in
1 to 13 Jul – Abdication of Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland of Holland; the
country is united to France, and Amsterdam becomes the third city of the Empire.
15 Aug – Birthday of the Emperor. The Vendôme Column is inaugurated.
Aug – Jean-Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, Prince of Ponte-Corvo, is elected to
the throne of Sweden.
25 Aug – The Feast of the Empress is celebrated at
12 Nov – Napoleon 1 informs French Senate of the pregnancy of the Empress.
31 Dec – The Tsar of Russia Alexander 1 bans the entry of French goods in
the Russian Empire; the Franco-Russian alliance is indeed broken.
July 3 - French frigate force defeats
British East Indiamen in Mozambique Channel (details)
Grand Port - French defeat British at Vieux Grand Port,
August 31 - British vs French near Toulon
1 Jan – For New Year gifts
to Empress Marie-Louise, Napoleon 1 offers her a locket containing her
1 Feb – James Madison, President of the United States of America,
commands the British government to cease controlling american ships.
11 Feb – President Madison prohibits trading with Great-Britain.
11 Mar – Capture of the city of Badajoz by Marshal Soult.
12 Mar – Marshal Ney defeats the English troops commanded by Arthur Wellesley at
20 Mar – In the Tuileries Palace, Paris: birth of Napoleon
François Charles Joseph Bonaparte, King of Rome, the son of Napoleon 1 and
26 Apr – French bishops are summoned to National Council.
7 May – Start of construction of the Palace of the King of Rome on the hill
of Chaillot, in Paris.
9 Jun – The King of Rome is christened.
17 Jun – The council opens
at Notre-Dame. It is composed of ninety-five prelates, whose forty-two are
10 Jul – Dissolution of the National Council of Bishops by order of
27 Jul – A million Francs is affected by decree for
embellishments of the city of Rome.
19 Sep – Departure of Napoleon for Holland.
30 Sep – Empress Marie-Louise joins the Emperor at Antwerp.
18 Oct – Creation, in Amsterdam, of the Imperial Order of Reunion; it
commemorates the union of Holland and France and replaces the royal order of the
11 Nov – Return of Napoleon 1 and Marie-Louise in Saint-Cloud.
19 Dec – Closure of hundred and twenty thousands conscripts.
March 2 - Spanish defeat Argentines under
Juan B. Azopardo at San Nicolás on the Paraná River
Lissa - British frigates under Hoste defeat larger Franco-Venetian
squadron under Dubordieu off Lissa (Vis) in the Adriatic
November 29 - Britain captures French frigate (details)
18 Jan – Order is given to
send to Rome two thousand workers for the restoration of ancient monuments.
26 Jan – Meeting of Catalonia to France; it will form four departments.
23 Feb – Concordat of 1801 is broken.
24 Feb – The King
Frederick William III of Prussia is forced by Napoleon 1 to supply a contingent
of twenty thousand men.
14 Mar – The Emperor of Austria Francis I is ordered to supply thirty
9 Apr – Russia and Sweden conclude an alliance.
18 Apr – The Army
Corps stationed in Germany is ordered to be ready for war.
22 Apr – At Vilna,
Alexander I, Tsar of Russia, takes command of his army.
24 Apr – Russia
issues an ultimatum.
1 May – An employee of the French Department of War, convicted of spying
for the Russians, is condamned and executed. He provided information on the
French armies in Germany.
9 May – Napoleon 1 arrives in Dresden.
21 May – Transfering the Pope Pius VII to Fontainebleau is decided.
29 May – Napoleon leaves Dresden. He will take command of the army.
19 Jun – Puis VII arrives at Fontainebleau as a prisoner.
22 Jun –
Napoleon 1 sends a proclamation to the Grand Army.
24 Jun – The Neman river
28 Jun – Entry of Napoleon in Vilna. He stays in the house
occupied by the Tsar Alexander 1 a few days earlier.
29 Jun – Evacuation of
Grodno by General Platov.
30 Jun – Jerome Bonaparte enters the city of Grodno.
The Russian army retreats on Mostoui.
1 Jul – At Vilna, Napoleon 1 installs the Administrative Commission of
Lithuania. It must govern Lithuania and White Russia and load requisitions among
the peasants and landowners.
2 Jul – Napoleon orders that the soldiers
found guilty of plundering or marauding should be arrested, tried by martial
court and shot, if convicted.
8 Jul – Occupation of Minsk by Marshal Davout.
16 Jul – The Grand Army Mares on Vitebsk.
28 Jul – Napoleon enters
Vitebsk. He says to Marshal Murat that "the first Russian campaign is over. 1813
will see us in Moscow, 1814 in St. Petersburg. The Russian war is a war of three
14 Aug – Passage of the River Dnieper. Fight of Krasnoi.
16 Aug – Battle of Smolensk.
17 Aug – Evacuation of Smolensk by the Russians.
Aug – Entry of Napoleon at Smolensk.
25 Aug – Departure from Smolensk.
26 Aug – Letter to Empress Marie-Louise. Napoleon writes: "My vanguard is
forty miles from Moscow".
29 Aug – Entry to Wiazma. Appointment of General
Kutuzov as commander of Russian troops.
1 Sep – In France, class 1813 (137,000 men) is called in advance.
2 Sep – Napoleon 1 writes to Marie-Louise: "I have been making war for
nineteen years, I have given many battles and made many sieges in Europe, Asia,
Africa. I'm going to hurry and finish it for seeing you again soon."
Sep – French troops attack the Russian avant-garde and reject it to
Borodino, a village nearby.
6 Sep – Occupation of Borodino. The portrait
of the King of Rome painted by François Gérard is exposed to the tent of the
Emperor. Napoleon sends a proclamation to the army: "Soldiers, this is the
battle you have so desired. Victory now depends on you, we need it, it will give
us plenty of good winter quarters and a speedy return home."
7 Sep – New proclamation: "Soldiers, the day you desired has arrived. The enemy's army who
fled is now in front of you. Remember that you are French soldiers". Battle of
8 Sep – Kutuzov's troops retreat to Moscow.
13 Sep – Kutuzov decides to evacuate Moscow.
14 Sep – Napoleon enters Moscow. The
Russians burn the city.
15 Sep – Installation of Napoleon in the Kremlin.
Spread of fire.
16 Sep – Napoleon settles in Petrovsk palace, outside
the city in flames.
18 Sep – Wellington besieges Burgos, Spain.
Sep – Napoleon sends a letter from Moscow to Marie-Louise: "The weather is
beautiful, we shot so many incendiaries that they have ceased."
24 Sep –
Napoleon makes to the Tsar confidential offers of peace; the latter takes no
5 Oct – Napoleon 1 begins to make arrangements for departure. He orders
to evacuate the wounded soldiers.
13 Oct – First snow.
15 Oct –
Napoleon signs the "Decree of Moscow" reorganizing the French Comedie.
19 Oct – Napoleon gives the signal for retreat and leaves Moscow, ordering to
blow up the Kremlin.
22 Oct – Faced with the heroic resistance of General
Dubreton and its 1,800 men, Wellington raises the siege of Burgos.
– In Paris, attempted coup of General Malet.
24 Oct – Battle of
25 Oct – At Ghorodnia, a group of Cossacks just miss to
28 Oct – In Paris, Malet and his accomplices are judged
by a council of war.
29 Oct – They are shot.
31 Oct – Napoleon
arrives in Wiazma. He had entered the city as a winner two months earlier.
3 Nov – Command of the rearguard is given to Marshal Ney.
Nov – Napoleon is informed of the conspiracy of Malet.
9 Nov –
Napoleon arrives in Smolensk.
16 Nov – The Russians take over Minsk.
Nov – Passage of the river Dnieper. In Orscha, Napoleon personally takes
care of burning everything he intends avoiding to fall into the hands of the
21 Nov – Russians take control of bridges at Borisov.
Nov – Napoleon orders the construction of bridges over the Berezina river,
and the burning of all bodies' Imperial eagles.
24 Nov – Vans and cars
will also burn.
27 Nov – The Emperor, custody and artillery cross the
28 Nov – The rest of the army fights against the Russians:
it's the battle of the Berezina.
5 Dec – Napoleon 1 entrusts the command of the army to Joachim Murat,
and leaves for Warsaw.
10 Dec – Napoleon arrives in Warsaw and leaves it
18 Dec – Napoleon reaches the Tuileries palace, shortly before
20 Dec – The wreck of the army arrives in Königsberg.
25 Dec – For Christmas, Napoleon grants a major hearing in the Throne Room.
26 Dec – Napoleon hunts in the park of Marly, then attends a military
parade at the Carrousel .
28 Dec –Napoleon visits the annual Salon of
Painters installed in the Louvre.
29 Dec –Again hunting, in the forests
February 22 - Britain captures French
battleship Rivoli (details)
Lyngør - British sink last Danish frigate
First Battle of Sacket's Harbor - US turns back British naval attack
1 Jan – Murat leaves
11 Jan – A Senatus consultum mobilizes 350,000 men: 100,000
men from classes 1809 to 1812; 150,000 men from class 1813 and 100,000 men from
the National Guard.
19 Jan – Napoleon has an interview with Pope Pius VII
25 Jan – A new Concordat is signed, still at
26 Jan – Joachim Murat is received by Napoleon and accused
by him of having abandoned his army.
1 Feb – The Count of Provence publishes a message to the French people,
from his residence of Hartwell, England.
5 Feb – A Senatus consultum
10 Feb – The King of Prussia orderes a mass
conscription il his entire kingdom.
18 Feb – Russians enter Warsaw.
1 Mar – The King Frederick William III of Prussia signs a treaty of alliance
4 Mar – The Russians enter Berlin.
11 Mar – The Count of
Provence reminds his rights to the throne in a manifesto.
17 Mar – The
French evacuate Dresden.
18 Mar – King Joseph leaves definitively Madrid.
22 Mar – Russians enter Dresden.
23 Mar – Napoleon tells the Legislature
he will take command of the army.
24 Mar – Pope Pius VII retracts and
denounces the Concordat of Fontainebleau.
27 Mar – Prussia officially
declares war on France. Its ambassador demands his passports.
29 Mar –
Russia and Austria sign a secret pact.
30 Mar – Establishment of a Regency
Council: Empress Marie-Louise becomes regent and Jean-Jacques Régis de
Cambacérès is appointed privy councilor.
31 Mar – Russians enter Leipzig.
3 Apr – A Senatus consultum mobilizes 180,000 additional troops.
– Departure of Napoleon 1 for the army.
25 Apr – Arrival of the Emperor in
Erfurt. He takes command of troops.
1 May – Death of Marshal Bessières, Duke of Istria.
2 May – Battle of
8 May – Napoleon 1 enters the city of Dresden, which has been
abandoned by the allied sovereigns.
10 May – The army cross the river Elbe in
the presence of Napoleon.
21 May – Battle of Bautzen.
27 May – Allies
retreat towards Breslau. In Spain, the French definitively leave Madrid.
May – Marshal Davout resumes Hamburg.
4 Jun – An armistice for two months is signed at Pleiswitz.
14 Jun – England
and Prussia sign the Treaty of Reichenbach, the first gives the latter a subsidy
of 666,660 pounds sterling to continue the war.
15 Jun – Russia, on the other
hand, receives 1,333,334 pounds to continue the war.
29 Jun – The command of
the Prussian army is entrusted to Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher.
10 Aug – Napoleon 1, anticipating the resumption of hostilities, is
celebrating his birthday in advance at Dresden. The king and the princes of
Saxony attend a parade which gathers forty thousand men.
11 Aug – Denunciation of the armistice. Austrians and Prussians join up.
12 Aug – Austria receives 500,000 pounds and declares war on France.
14 Aug –
Blücher initiates the hostilities.
26 Aug – Battle of Dresden.
– Battle of Dresden (continued). General Jean Victor Marie Moreau, who had
joined the russian ranks, is mortally wounded on the battlefield. Blücher
3 Sep – Napoleon 1 pursues Blücher.
6 Sep – Marshal Ney is
beaten by the Prussians under Bülow at Dennewitz.
23 Sep – Prussians
retreat to the river Spree.
8 Oct – Bavaria defects and joins the coalition in the Treaty of Ried.
9 Oct – Call in advance of class 1815 (160,000 men).
16 Oct – Battle of
17 Oct – Battle of Leipzig (continued).
18 Oct – Battle of
Leipzig (end). The Saxon army defects.
19 Oct – Retreat of the French army.
2 Nov – French army evacuates Frankfurt and crosses back the river Rhine.
3 Nov – The King of Württemberg joins the allies.
7 Nov –
Napoleon leaves Mainz.
9 Nov – He arrives at Saint-Cloud.
12 Nov – The allies come to Dusseldorf.
16 Nov – People uprises against the French
22 Nov – The Russians come to Amsterdam.
25 Nov – Defection of the Grand Duke of Baden.
30 Nov – The Prince of Orange lands
2 Dec – The allies cross the river Rhine.
9 Dec – Evacuation of
Breda by the French.
10 Dec – The British land in Tuscany.
– The Treaty of Valençay between France and Ferdinand VII recognizes him as King
15 Dec – Armistice is signed between Russia and the King of
21 Dec – The Allied armies enter Switzerland.
23 Dec –
The Austrians appear in Alsace.
26 Dec – Twenty-three senators and
councilors of state are sent in the military divisions; they act as special
commissioners to expedite the conscription and national guards.
29 Dec –
French Legislature, by 223 votes against 51, votes a report of its committees,
condemning "the ambitious activity" of the Emperor, asking him to declare that
he will continue the war for independence and territorial integrity of France,
and begging to keep the laws that guarantee to French a free exercise of their
30 Dec – Occupation of Geneva by the Austrians.
31 Dec – Napoleon I adjournes the Legislature and bans the printing of the
report voted on 29 Dec.
Second Battle of Sacket's Harbor - US General Jacob Brown turns back
British under Sir George Prevost
Battle of Lake Erie- US squadron under
Oliver Hazard Perry defeats British under
Robert Heriot Barclay, gaining control of the lake
November 5 - Skirmish between
British and French near Toulon (details)
1 Jan – After having crosed the
river Rhine, Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher Mares towards Nancy. Napoleon
apostrophes French deputies, during the reception of New Year's day: "Are you
people's representatives? I am, me ... I have a title and you do not ... Return
to your departments!".
3 Jan – Allies enter Montbéliard.
4 Jan –
In Paris, free corps are created.
7 Jan – The allies enter Dole.
11 Jan – Betrayal of Joachim Murat: he promises, in a treaty with Austria, to
provide thirty thousand men to drive the French out of Italy.
13 Jan –
Napoleon reviews troops at the Carrousel .
14 Jan – Marshal Ney evacuates
16 Jan – Langres is taken by Allies.
17 Jan – Denmark
declares war on France.
19 Jan – Allies enter Dijon, Burgundy.
20 Jan – Allies enter Chambery, Savoy.
21 Jan – Napoleon orders to bring
back the Pope Pius VII to Italy.
23 Jan – Presentation of the King of Rome
to the officers of the National Guard.
24 Jan – Joseph Bonaparte is
appointed Lieutenant General of the Emperor. Empress Marie-Louise becomes regent.
25 Jan – Fall of Lleida, French last place in Spain. Napoleon joins the
26 Jan – Marshal Berthier is ordered to distribute to the army two
to three hundred thousand bottles of wine and distilled spirits taken in Vitry.
27 Jan – Napoleon defeats the vanguard of Blücher in Saint-Dizier.
29 Jan – The "Marie-Louise" (young soldiers battalions) beat Blücher at Brienne.
3 Feb – A conference betwen French and Allies opens at
4 Feb – Blücher resumes the offensive and enters La
Fere-Champenoise. Marshal Macdonald retreats towards Chateau-Thierry.
6 Feb – The French retreat to Nogent. Napoleon plans the evacuation of Paris
by the government.
7 Feb – Napoleon gets informed that the allies demand
that France founds its limits prior to the Revolution.
8 Feb – He refuses
9 Feb – The Conference of Chatillon is suspended.
12 Feb – The Duke of Angoulême (nephew of Louis XVIII) addresses a
proclamation to the French from Saint-Jean de Luz, Basque country.
– Conference resumes at Chatillon.
18 Feb – French victory at Montereau.
19 Feb – Eliza, sister of Napoleon, states cutting ties with the French
22 Feb – The Allies met in Troyes to hold a council of war. They
decide to retire and offer Napoleon an armistice.
24 Feb – Napoleon
enters Troyes, Champagne.
25 Feb – Negotiations begin at Lusigny, for an
armistice. However discussions at Chatillon continue.
28 Feb – End of
conference of Lusigny; no results.
1 Mar – The Allies proclaim themselves associated for twenty years against
France: it is the Treaty of Chaumont.
4 Mar – All French people are called
9 Mar – Battle of Laon.
10 Mar – Battle of Laon (end). Napoleon
retreats towards Soissons. The Baron of Vitrolles, as emissary of Talleyrand,
arrives at the headquarters of the Allies.
12 Mar – The Duke of Angouleme
enters Bordeaux. Louis XVIII is proclaimed King.
19 Mar – The negotiations
of Chatillon are permanently discontinued. Arrival of the Count of Artois (Louis
XVIII's younger brother) in Nancy.
20 Mar – Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube. The
imperial army must retire behind the river Aube. The bridge at Arcis is shot.
23 Mar – The Allies cross the river Aube and head to Paris.
28 Mar – The
Tsar Alexander I looks down at the capital from the hills over the river Seine.
29 Mar – Empress Marie-Louise and her son leave Paris for Rome.
30 Mar –
Start of the battle for Paris at 6 AM. Marshal Marmont offers to negotiate a
cease-fire at 4 PM.
31 Mar – Signature of the capitulation of Paris at 2 AM.
The Allies enter Paris at 11 AM. Napoleon is at Fontainebleau.
1 Apr – The French Senate appoints a provisional government headed by
2 Apr – The Senate declares "Napoleon Bonaparte and his family
deprived of the throne, the French people and army freed from their oath of
3 Apr – The French Legislature votes the forfeiture, too.
Apr – Napoleon at Fontainebleau signs a form of conditional abdication, which
preserves the rights of his son and the Empress Regent.
5 Apr – He reviews
the debris of his guard.
6 Apr – Council with the Marshals. The Senate "freely"
calls Louis-Stanislas-Xavier (Louis XVIII) to the throne. Napoleon renounces for
himself and his family to the thrones of France and Italy.
8 Apr – The
provisional government declares invalid all acts of Napoleon since his
disqualification by the Senate.
10 Apr – A ceremony of cleansing takes place
in Paris, Place de la Concorde, the place where had been guillotined King Louis
XVI and Queen Marie-Antoinette.
11 Apr – The allies offer to Napoleon the
sovereignty of the island of Elba, in the Mediterranean Sea.
12 Apr – Attempted suicide of Napoleon, late at night.
13 Apr – Napoleon accepts the
offer of Allies.
14 Apr – The Count d'Artois receives "the lieutenant
general of the kingdom" from the Senate.
15 Apr – He is solemnly received by
19 Apr – Allied commissioners responsible to accompany Napoleon
to Elba arrive at Fontainebleau.
20 Apr – Farewell of the Emperor to his
24 Apr – Louis XVIII lands at Calais, North France.
28 Apr – At
Saint-Raphael, Napoleon embarks on the British frigate The Undaunted.
3 May – Napoleon arrives at the island of Elba. King Louis XVIII enters Paris.
24 May – Return of Pope Pius VII in Rome. – 29 May – Josephine dies at
30 May – First Treaty of Paris: France is reduced to its 1792
31 May – Pauline Bonaparte joins her brother in the island of Elba.
1 Jun – Proclamation of peace in Paris.
4 Jun – Louis XVIII gives the
Charter. In Porto-Ferrajo, the capital of the island of Elba, a ball is given
aboard a British ship for the anniversary of King George, Napoleon Bonaparte
3 Aug – Arrival of Napoleon's mother at the island of Elba.
15 Aug – Celebration of the anniversary of Napoleon in all his kingdom.
1 Sep – Arrival of Maria Walewska and her son to the island of Elba.
3 Nov – Opening of the Congress of Vienna, a conference of ambassadors of
European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich.
March 11 - Argentines under William Brown attack Spanish under Romerate
May 14, 16 and 17 - Argentines under William Brown defeat Spanish (details)
Plattsburgh (Lake Champlain) - US squadron under
Thomas Macdonough defeats British under
3 Jan – A secret treaty is signed between France, England and Austria,
intending to impede the Prussian and Russian ambitions in Germany ...
12 Feb – Hugues-Bernard Maret, Duke of Bassano, sends to Napoleon 1 an
emissary, baron Pierre-Alexandre-Edouard Fleury de Chaboulon, to advise him to
hasten his return to France.
26 Feb – The brig Inconstant, accompanied by
a flotilla of four three-masted and two feluccas, departs at nine o'clock from
the island of Elba, Napoleon aboard.
1 Mar – Napoleon 1 lands in Golfe-Juan , between Cannes and Antibes,
5 Mar – At noon, Napoleon arrives in Sisteron, southern
French Alpes. At eleven o'clock, he comes to the city of Gap. French royal
government is informed of the landing of Napoleon.
6 Mar – King Louis XVIII
chairs a cabinet meeting to deal with the return of Napoleon. The King asks for
the convocation of Parliament. A royal decree declares Napoleon Bonaparte
traitor and rebel. All commanders of the armed forces will "run down", bringing
him before a court martial and shooting him on the simple fact of his identity.
7 Mar – The news of the departure of Napoleon from Elba arrives in Vienna. –
Mar – Napoleon enters Lyon.
11 Mar – Napoleon reviews his troops on the
Place Bellecour, Lyon. He takes a decree that dissolves the chambers of Louis
XVIII, and another one that directs all emigrants returned after 1 Jan
1814 to immediately get out of the Empire. He leaves Lyon at noon. The same day,
the Congress of Vienna says: "Napoleon Bonaparte has placed himself outside the
civil and social relations and as an enemy and disturber of the world, he has
engaged in public prosecution."
18 Mar – The French Chamber of Deputies
declares that the war against Napoleon Bonaparte is "national".
19 Mar –
King Louis XVIII asks the Army to remain faithful, while promising to forgive
and forget "lost children". He leaves the Tuileries at midnight. In the night,
Napoleon arrives in Montereau.
20 Mar – Napoleon arrives at Fontainebleau at
4 AM. At 9 AM he reaches the courtyard of the Tuileries Palace and sets up a
21 Mar – Lazare Carnot is made Minister of Interior and Count of
23 Mar – Louis XVIII publishes from Lille, North France, an
order to all French commanding to disobey an order of mobilization from Napoleon
24 Mar – The imperial power suppresses the direction of the
library and censorship.
25 Mar – Legislation passed by the revolutionary
assemblies against the Bourbons are updated.
26 Mar – The National Guard of
Paris will have the Emperor as commander.
27 Mar – The Council of State
annulles the forfeiture of Napoleon.
30 Mar – The Imperial University,
suppressed by Louis XVIII on 17 Feb, is reinstated.
17 Apr – Napoleon 1 moves to the Elysee Palace.
20 Apr – The Parisians are
informed, by firing a hundred guns, that the tricolor flag fleets again on all
the cities of France.
22 Apr – Publication of the Acte additionel (supplementary
to the constitutions of the Empire).
25 Apr – The Allies are committed not
to lay down their arms until they have killed Napoleon.
2 May – Louis XVIII, in a manifesto published in Ghent, Belgium, calls the
French people to chase out the usurper.
12 May – The Allies confirm their
decision of Apr 25th.
15 May – Royalist rebellion in the Vendee, West
26 May – The Tsar Alexander I of Russia, theEmperor Francis I of
Austria and King Frederick William III of Prussia start leading the "liberation
1 Jun – Assembly of the Champ-de-May: Emperor Napoleon I swears-in to new
constitutions of the Empire.
2 Jun – The British House of Commons vote a
budget of 3,169,622 pounds for war costs in 1815.
9 Jun – The final treaty,
which sets the state of Europe, is signed at the Congress of Vienna.
12 Jun –
Napoleon leaves Paris to join the army.
14 Jun – Proclamation to his troops.
15 Jun – The French army crosses the river Sambre.
16 Jun – The enemy
suffers heavy losses in the plains of Fleurus, near Ligny, but is not destroyed.
18 Jun – Battle of Mont-Saint-Jean (a.k.a. Waterloo).
21 Jun – Napoleon
returns to the Elysee palace, Paris.
22 Jun – Abdication in favor of Napoleon
II. Joseph Fouché forms a provisional government.
24 Jun – Napoleon leaves
Paris. The White Terror begins in the South of France.
25 Jun – King Louis
XVIII returns to France.
3 Jul – Capitulation of Paris.
7 Jul – Ministry Talleyrand-Fouché is
established by theCount of Artois .
8 Jul – King Louis XVIII returns to
15 Jul – Napoleon embarks at Rochefort aboard the HMS Bellerophon,
commanded by Captain Frederick Maitland, which sails to England.
7 Aug – Napoleon is transferred aboard the HMS Northumberland, which sails to
the island of St. Helena, located in the middle of the South Atlantic.
16 Oct – St. Helena.
March 4 - Greeks vs Turks north-west of Zakynthos
June 5, 6 and 8 - Greeks defeat Turks
August 10-c. 13 - Skirmishes
October 1 - Skirmish
June 18–19 - Greek fireships
Constantine Kanaris blow up the flagship of Ottoman admiral Kara Ali
May 4 - Brazilians under Cochrane vs Portuguese (details)
July 2, 4 and 6 - Brazilians under Cochrane vs Portuguese
Lake Maracaibo - Republican naval forces of Venezuela vs Spanish
Empire fleet in Lake Maracaibo that includes siege of Defensive Castles
in Zapara, San Fernando and San Carlos islands
September 27 - Greeks vs
Turks west of Lemnos
October 23 - Greeks vs Turks
August 11, 12, 13, 16, 17 and
c. 26 - Various skirmishes between Greeks and Turks/Egyptians/Tunisians
September 1 - First Budrum -
Greeks vs Turks and Egyptians
September 9 -
September 22 - Greeks vs
Egyptians near Nikaria
November 12 and 13 - Greeks
vs Turks and Egyptians near Spinalonga
June 1 - Greeks defeat Turks
between Euboea and Andros
June 14 and 15 - Greeks
defeat Turks and Egyptians near Suda Bay
June 28 and 29 - Greeks vs
Turks and Egyptians south of Cerigo
August 3 - Greeks defeat
Turks near Missolonghi
November 14 - Greeks under
Miaoulis vs Turks/Egyptians/Algerines/Tripolitans near Navarin
November 25, 26, 29, 30 and
December 6 and 7 - Greeks vs Turks (and allies?) near Missolonghi
January 22 and 28 - Greeks vs
February 9 - Argentina vs
Los Pozos (Quilmes) - 11 Argentine vessels under William Brown
defeat 31 Brazilian vessels near Buenos Aires
July 27 and 28 - Greeks vs
Turks near Samos
September 10 and 11 - Greeks
vs Turks near Mitylene
October 7 (6?) - Greeks vs
Turks in Aegean Sea (?)
Juncal - 15 Argentines ships under Brown defeat 17 Brazilians under
February 24 - Argentines
under Brown vs Brazilians near Quilmes
April 6 and 7
Monte Santiago - Brazilian fleet defeat Argentine navy under William
Brown south of Buenos Aires
September 29 - "Greeks" (Frank
Abney Hastings) vs Turks in
Navarino - British/French/Russian squadrons, under Admirals
Codrington, de Rigny, and Geiden, destroy Turkish/Egyptian/Tunisian
Tahir Pasha off south-west Greece
January 31 - British and
French defeat Greek pirates at
June 9 (May 26 OS) - Russians
defeat Turks near Braila (Russo-Turkish
5 Oct – In St. Helena,
twenty-eight witnesses, whose Generals Bertrand and Gourgaud, Mamluk Ali
(Louis-Etienne de Saint-Denis) and Louis-Joseph Marand, former chief valet de
chambre of the Emperor, attend the exhumation of Napoleon.
Dec – Les Invalides receive the casket containing the ashes of Napoleon.